We present the first report of an association between hydrocephalus with stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius (HSAS) and a specific form of congenital idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIIP) in an infant. Diagnosis of HSAS was suspected during the neonatal period because of a severely dilated ventricular system associated with bilateral adducted thumbs, and was confirmed by demonstration of a mutation in the gene encoding L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM). L1CAM mutations cause a variable clinical spectrum. This gene is located at Xq28 and encodes a transmembrane glycoprotein involved in neurite outgrowth and neuronal migration. Hirschprung disease has been reported to involve an L1CAM mutation that manifests as a quantitative defect in the migration of neural crest cells in distal segments of the gut. We report an association that suggests that alterations of L1CAM may cause another type of intestinal pseudo-obstruction distension with a qualitative defect in differentiated Cajal's cells in the anterior part of the gut. This observation suggests that L1CAM has a role in the developmental regulation of multiple systems. Further clinical descriptions of gastroenterological and neuropathological data are required to extend our understanding of the mechanisms underlying L1CAM functions.