Confusion in cladism

@article{Williams2004ConfusionIC,
  title={Confusion in cladism},
  author={Patricia A. H. Williams},
  journal={Synthese},
  year={2004},
  volume={91},
  pages={135-152}
}
In Phylogenetic Systematics (1966), Willi Hennig conflates the Linnaean hierarchy with what Hennig refers to as the “divisional hierarchy”. In doing so, he lays the foundations of that school of biological taxonomy known as “cladism” on a philosophically ambiguous basis. This paper compares and contrasts the two hierarchies and demonstrates that Hennig conflates them. It shows that Hennig's followers also conflate them. Finally, it illuminates five persistent problems in cladism by suggesting… Expand

Figures from this paper

Hennig’s enkaptic system
TLDR
The concept of enkapsis is explored, and the way Hennig used it as a basis for the unification of his phylogenetic system, which was characterized as an enkaptic hierarchy. Expand
‘Total evidence’ in phylogenetic systematics
TLDR
This paper explores how empiricist assumptions are embedded in phylogenetic systematics, and why these assumptions are problematic for cladists (or any taxonomists). Expand
From types to individuals: Hennig’s ontology and the development of phylogenetic systematics
TLDR
Understanding Hennig’s ontology illuminates his responses to objections to phylogenetic systematics from both sides of the Atlantic and sheds substantial light on the extinction part of the dichotomy rule. Expand
The Gegenbaur Transformation: a paradigm change in comparative biology
TLDR
This paper traces the development of phylogenetic systematics from Gegenbaur through the work of Adolf Naef to Walter Zimmermann and Willi Hennig. Expand
Character Analysis in Cladistics: Abstraction, Reification, and the Search for Objectivity
  • R. Winther
  • Computer Science, Medicine
  • Acta biotheoretica
  • 2009
TLDR
The dangers of character reification for cladistic inference are explored and the employment of objectivity criteria that give us good methods for identifying robust primary homology statements are identified. Expand
Confusion in philosophy: A comment on Williams (1992)
TLDR
It is demonstrated that Williams has seriously misunderstood many modern commentators on this subject and all of her “five persistent problems” are derivable from this misunderstanding. Expand
Beyond Cladistics: The Branching of a Paradigm
TLDR
This book presents a bibliography of works by Chris Humphries on cladistics, and discusses monophyly and the Two Hierarchies, which examines the role of ideology in the evolution of life on earth. Expand
REPLY TO COMMENT BY THERIOT (2008) ON KACZMARSKA ET AL. (2006) 1
TLDR
This rebuttal focuses on the major contentious issues to show the patterns of errors and misrepresentations in Theriot’s (2008) presentation of the work and in his conclusions. Expand
The series, the network, and the tree: changing metaphors of order in nature
TLDR
In ‘Questioning the Tree of Life’, it seems beneficial to draw at least four conceptual distinctions: pattern reconstruction versus process explanation as different epistemological approaches to the study of phylogeny; open versus closed systems as expressions of different kinds of population (species) structures; phylogenetic trees versus cladograms as representations of evolutionary processes versus patterns of relationships; and genes versus species as expression of different levels of causal integration and evolutionary transformation. Expand
Adolf Naef (1883–1949): On Foundational Concepts and Principles of Systematic Morphology
TLDR
An English translation of a previously unpublished typescript from Naef’s estate is presented, which Naef intended as the introduction to a textbook on Comparative Anatomy for which he was unable to find a publisher before his sudden death in 1949. Expand
...
1
2
...

References

SHOWING 1-7 OF 7 REFERENCES
Systematics and Biogeography: Cladistics and Vicariance
TLDR
It's coming again, the new collection that this site has; the favorite systematics and biogeography cladistics and vicariance book as the choice today. Expand
THE LIMITS OF CLADISM
TLDR
This paper argues that a better alternative is to work toward improving methods of cladistic analysis (or else to supplement them with other methods) so that such features of phylogeny can be discerned and to devise methods of representation capable of representing them in both cladograms and classifications. Expand
Contemporary Systematic Philosophies
During the past decade, taxonomists have been engaged in a controversy over the proper methods and foundations of biological classification. Although methodologically inclined taxonomists had beenExpand
FROM BIOLOGY TO MATHEMATICS*
  • J. Woodger
  • Biology, Mathematics
  • The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science
  • 1952
TLDR
The object of the present paper is to make some suggestions towards removing limitations of the language WL. Expand
The language of taxonomy.