Confounding in health research.

@article{Greenland2001ConfoundingIH,
  title={Confounding in health research.},
  author={S. Greenland and H. Morgenstern},
  journal={Annual review of public health},
  year={2001},
  volume={22},
  pages={
          189-212
        }
}
Consideration of confounding is fundamental to the design, analysis, and interpretation of studies intended to estimate causal effects. Unfortunately, the word confounding has been used synonymously with several other terms, and it has been used to refer to at least four distinct concepts. This paper provides an overview of confounding and related concepts based on a counterfactual model of causation. In this context, which predominates in nonexperimental research, confounding is a source of… Expand
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