Confounding by severity does not explain the association between fenoterol and asthma death

@article{Beasley1994ConfoundingBS,
  title={Confounding by severity does not explain the association between fenoterol and asthma death},
  author={Richard Beasley and Carl D. Burgess and Neil Pearce and K Woodman and Julian Crane},
  journal={Clinical \& Experimental Allergy},
  year={1994},
  volume={24}
}
Summary. Three recent case‐control studies from New Zealand, and one from Saskatchewan, Canada, have found that fenoterol increases the risk of death in patients with severe asthma. It has been suggested that these findings may be due to confounding by severity, if fenoterol was selectively prescribed to more severe asthmatics. This ‘confounding by severity’ hypothesis has now been investigated in further analyses of data from the New Zealand case‐control studies. This analysis found that among… 
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Long-term information on medication use is essential to ensure that the results of such case-control studies are not biased by indication, and it is concluded that the comparison between inhaled fenoterol and salbutamol in the SAEP may have beenbiased by indication.
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The results suggested that beta2-agonists administered by a MDI might have increased the risk of asthma death and LTA in Japan because the magnitude of the effect was similar to that reported in other countries.
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In this article, studies that have examined the effects on morbidity and mortality of β-agonist drugs are reviewed and it is indicated that the high-dose preparations of isoproterenol and fenoterol are associated with increased mortality and were the major causes of the epidemics of asthma mortality observed in some countries.
Case-control study of salmeterol and near-fatal attacks of asthma.
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The findings of this case-control study suggest that the use of salmeterol by patients with chronic severe asthma is not associated with a significantly increased risk of a near-fatal attack of asthma.
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