Confounding and causation in the epidemiology of lead

  title={Confounding and causation in the epidemiology of lead},
  author={Ian Harold Wilson and Simon B Wilson},
  journal={International Journal of Environmental Health Research},
  pages={467 - 482}
Abstract The National Health and Medical Research Council recently reported that there were not enough high-quality studies to conclude that associations between health effects and blood lead levels <10 μg/dL were caused by lead. It identified uncontrolled confounding, measurement error and other potential causal factors as common weaknesses. This paper supports those findings with evidence of uncontrolled confounding by parental education, intelligence or household management from several… Expand
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It is concluded that prevention of lead exposure must occur before pregnancy or childbirth and lead exposure in children who have maximal BPb levels < 7.5 μg/dL is associated with intellectual deficits. Expand
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