Conformity to cultural norms of tool use in chimpanzees

@article{Whiten2005ConformityTC,
  title={Conformity to cultural norms of tool use in chimpanzees},
  author={Andrew Whiten and Victoria Horner and FRANS B. M. Waal},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2005},
  volume={437},
  pages={737-740}
}
Rich circumstantial evidence suggests that the extensive behavioural diversity recorded in wild great apes reflects a complexity of cultural variation unmatched by species other than our own. However, the capacity for cultural transmission assumed by this interpretation has remained difficult to test rigorously in the field, where the scope for controlled experimentation is limited. Here we show that experimentally introduced technologies will spread within different ape communities. Unobserved… Expand
Spread of arbitrary conventions among chimpanzees: a controlled experiment
TLDR
This work seeded one of two rewarded alternative endpoints to a complex sequence of behaviour in each of two chimpanzee groups, and each sequence spread in the group in which it was seeded, with many individuals unambiguously adopting the sequence demonstrated by a group member. Expand
Experimental studies of traditions and underlying transmission processes in chimpanzees
Multiple regional differences in tool use have been identified among wild chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, but the hypothesis that these represent traditions, transmitted through social learning, isExpand
Kin-based cultural transmission of tool use in wild chimpanzees
TLDR
It is concluded that the spread of cultural behavior in wild chimpanzees follows a sequential structure of initial proximity-based, horizontal transmission, followed by kin-based vertical transmission. Expand
Controlled studies of chimpanzee cultural transmission.
TLDR
The following chapter details a series of experimental studies at Yerkes National Primate Research Center of Emory University designed to investigate the conditions under which chimpanzees learn from one another, how behaviors are transmitted, and how cultures are maintained over generations. Expand
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and the question of cumulative culture: an experimental approach
TLDR
It is tentatively concluded that young chimpanzees exhibit a tendency to become ‘stuck’ on a technique they initially learn, inhibiting cumulative social learning and possibly constraining the species’ capacity for cumulative cultural evolution. Expand
Transmission of Multiple Traditions within and between Chimpanzee Groups
TLDR
Robust experimental evidence is provided that alternative foraging techniques seeded in different groups of chimpanzees spread differentially not only within groups but serially across two further groups with substantial fidelity, offering the first experimental evidence that a nonhuman species can sustain unique local cultures. Expand
Chimpanzees prioritise social information over pre-existing behaviours in a group context but not in dyads
TLDR
It is argued that an important influence of social context upon prioritisation of social information over pre-existing methods, which can result in group homogeneity of behaviour, is demonstrated. Expand
Genetic and ‘cultural’ similarity in wild chimpanzees
TLDR
It is found that genetic dissimilarity cannot be eliminated as playing a major role in generating group differences in chimpanzee behaviour, and the overall levels of genetic and behavioural Dissimilarity between groups are highly and statistically significantly correlated. Expand
Basis for Cumulative Cultural Evolution in Chimpanzees: Social Learning of a More Efficient Tool-Use Technique
TLDR
This study presents the first experimental evidence for chimpanzees' social transmission of a more efficient tool-use technique invented by a conspecific group member, and provides important insights into the cognitive basis for cumulative culture in chimpanzees, and suggests possible conditions in which cumulative cultural evolution could arise even in non-human animals. Expand
In-Group Conformity Sustains Different Foraging Traditions in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)
TLDR
A new experimental approach in which the alpha male of each of two groups of capuchins was trained to open an artificial foraging device in a quite different way, using either a slide or lift action, then reunited with his group, suggesting a striking effect of social conformity in learned behavioral techniques. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 45 REFERENCES
Cultural innovation and transmission of tool use in wild chimpanzees: evidence from field experiments
TLDR
Evidence from three complementary approaches in a group of oil-palm nut- (Elaeis guineensis) cracking chimpanzees at Bossou, Guinea demonstrates a mechanism for the emergence of culture in wild chimpanzees. Expand
Cultures in chimpanzees
TLDR
It is found that 39 different behaviour patterns, including tool usage, grooming and courtship behaviours, are customary or habitual in some communities but are absent in others where ecological explanations have been discounted. Expand
CHARTING CULTURAL VARIATION IN CHIMPANZEES
Cultural variation among chimpanzee communities or unit-groups at nine long-term study sites was charted through a systematic, collaborative procedure in which the directors of the sites first agreedExpand
Chimpanzee cultures
  • C. Schaik
  • International Journal of Primatology
  • 2007
Chimpanzees and bonobos are being studied more than any other primate genus. Little wonder, then, that a recurrent theme emanating from these studies is variation--in subsistence, communication, andExpand
Cultural panthropology
Culture, in the most basic sense of “tradition,” has been shown to exist in many species. There is more to the phenomenon of culture in humans, however, than the mere existence of traditions. Thus,Expand
Sex differences in learning in chimpanzees
TLDR
It is found that there are distinct sex-based differences, akin to those found in human children, in the way in which young chimpanzees develop their termite-fishing skills. Expand
Acquisition and Transmission of Tool Making and Use for Drinking Juice in a Group of Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)
TLDR
The present study examined the acquisition and transmission of tool making and use in a group of chimpanzees in an outdoor compound and found that the chimpanzees showed high selectivity with regard to tool type. Expand
Orangutan Cultures and the Evolution of Material Culture
TLDR
A correlation between geographic distance and cultural difference, a correlation between the abundance of opportunities for social learning and the size of the local cultural repertoire, and no effect of habitat on the content of culture mean that great-ape cultures exist and may have done so for at least 14 million years. Expand
Culture in whales and dolphins
TLDR
The complex and stable vocal and behavioural cultures of sympatric groups of killer whales (Orcinus orca) appear to have no parallel outside humans, and represent an independent evolution of cultural faculties. Expand
How do apes ape?
TLDR
Together, these studies suggest that apes ape by employing a portfolio of alternative social-learning processes in flexibly adaptive ways, in conjunction with nonsocial learning. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...