Confirmation Bias: A Ubiquitous Phenomenon in Many Guises

@article{Nickerson1998ConfirmationBA,
  title={Confirmation Bias: A Ubiquitous Phenomenon in Many Guises},
  author={R. S. Nickerson},
  journal={Review of General Psychology},
  year={1998},
  volume={2},
  pages={175 - 220}
}
Confirmation bias, as the term is typically used in the psychological literature, connotes the seeking or interpreting of evidence in ways that are partial to existing beliefs, expectations, or a hypothesis in hand. The author reviews evidence of such a bias in a variety of guises and gives examples of its operation in several practical contexts. Possible explanations are considered, and the question of its utility or disutility is discussed. 
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