Confinement and lattice quantum-electrodynamic electric flux tubes simulated with ultracold atoms.

  title={Confinement and lattice quantum-electrodynamic electric flux tubes simulated with ultracold atoms.},
  author={Erez Zohar and Benni Reznik},
  journal={Physical review letters},
  volume={107 27},
We propose a method for simulating (2+1)D compact lattice quantum-electrodynamics, using ultracold atoms in optical lattices. In our model local Bose-Einstein condensates' (BECs) phases correspond to the electromagnetic vector potential, and the local number operators represent the conjugate electric field. The well-known gauge-invariant Kogut-Susskind Hamiltonian is obtained as an effective low-energy theory. The field is then coupled to external static charges. We show that in the strong… 

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