Confidence, Not Consistency, Characterizes Flashbulb Memories

  title={Confidence, Not Consistency, Characterizes Flashbulb Memories},
  author={Jennifer M Talarico and David C. Rubin},
  journal={Psychological Science},
  pages={455 - 461}
On September 12, 2001, 54 Duke students recorded their memory of first hearing about the terrorist attacks of September 11 and of a recent everyday event. They were tested again either 1, 6, or 32 weeks later. Consistency for the flashbulb and everyday memories did not differ, in both cases declining over time. However, ratings of vividness, recollection, and belief in the accuracy of memory declined only for everyday memories. Initial visceral emotion ratings correlated with later belief in… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Flashbulb memories are special after all; in phenomenology, not accuracy
Consistency of flashbulb memories (FBMs) of the 11th September terrorist attacks and of everyday memories (EDMs) of the preceding weekend do not differ, in both cases declining over the following
Flashbulb Memory for the Events of 9-11: An Analysis of Facts, Feelings, and Flow 1
Undergraduates enrolled in psychology courses at Robert Morris University reported their personal memories surrounding the events of September 11, 2001. These memories were collected within two days
Flashbulb and Event Memory of September 11, 2001: Consistency, Confidence and Age Effects
It is concluded that flashbulb memories are a special case of normal episodic memory for emotional events, however, requires a special scenario of emotional arousal and rehearsal.
Flashbulb memories of the Paris attacks.
Negative emotion seems to play a key role in the formation of flashbulb memories, at least those associated with the Paris attacks.
Flashbulb Memories for September 11th can be Preserved in Older Adults
  • P. Davidson, S. Cook, E. Glisky
  • Psychology
    Neuropsychology, development, and cognition. Section B, Aging, neuropsychology and cognition
  • 2006
Testing memory for the source of news concerning the September 11th terrorist attacks in older adults with high or low frontal lobe function and in young people found no age differences in source memory a year after the event and no differences related to FL function.
Flashbulb memory for 11 September 2001
SUMMARY The recollection of particularly salient, surprising or consequential events is often called ‘flashbulb memories’. We tested people’s autobiographical memory for details of 11 September 2001
Flashbulb Memories
We review and analyze the key theories, debates, findings, and omissions of the existing literature on flashbulb memories (FBMs), including what factors affect their formation, retention, and degree
Flashbulb Memories for the September 11 th Terrorist Attacks : Long-Term Retention , Confidence , and the Influence of Rehearsal and Emotion
sammanfattning Flashbulb memories are memories for circumstances in which one first learned of a surprising, consequential, and emotional event. Classic flashbulb memory research suggests that this
Predicting confidence in flashbulb memories
Whether people's social bond with the target of a news event predicts confidence and whether participants' initial forecasts regarding the persistence of their flashbulb memories predicted the durability of their memories was examined.


The Role of Positive and Negative Affect in Flashbulb Memory
No significant differences were found on the cardinal features of flashbulb memories for events of negative versus positive affect, which suggests that an hitherto untapped research area may be explored to clarify controversial issues within this construct such as whether a special mechanism exists in the formation of flash Bulb memories.
Affect and accuracy in recall: Do flashbulb memories differ from other types of emotional memories?
One field of research that is pertinent to the relationship between emotion and memory, and that most consistently demonstrates high memory performance for negative emotionally arousing events, is
Do you need a flash' to form a flashbulb memory?
On January 16, 1991, students encoded an «ordinary event» as part of a demonstration on flashbulb memories and completed a questionnaire modeled after Christianson (1989). By coincidence, the bombing
Flashbulb memories: Special, but not so special
It was concluded that the loss of information during one year contradicts the notion that flashbulb memories persist in absolute accuracy over time, as has been claimed in previous studies.
Vivid memories
Flashbulb memories of the assassination attempt on President Reagan
Flashbulb memories? The effects of when the initial memory report was obtained
A consolidation model is proposed to explain results: during the days immediately following a newsworthy event, the narrative structure of these memories changes in that some details are forgotten, and after this consolidation period, the memories may solidify.
Recall of the Hillsborough disaster over time: Systematic biases of ‘flashbulb’ memories
The class of memories, described within the literature as flashbulb memories, are susceptible to the same type of systematic biases as everyday memories. These systematic biases, which are consistent
The formation of flashbulb memories
A causal analysis of secondary variables showed that the formation of FB memories was primarily associated with the level of importance attached to the event and level of affective response to the news.
Affect and accuracy in recall: Remembering personal circumstances: A functional analysis
In the classic paper on “flashbulb” memories, Brown and Kulik (1977) identified an aspect of autobiographical memory that had received scant attention from cognitive psychologists – memory for one's