Conditioning on the propensity score can result in biased estimation of common measures of treatment effect: a Monte Carlo study.

@article{Austin2007ConditioningOT,
  title={Conditioning on the propensity score can result in biased estimation of common measures of treatment effect: a Monte Carlo study.},
  author={Peter C. Austin and Paul Grootendorst and Sharon-Lise T. Normand and Geoffrey M. Anderson},
  journal={Statistics in medicine},
  year={2007},
  volume={26 4},
  pages={754-68}
}
Propensity score methods are increasingly being used to estimate causal treatment effects in the medical literature. Conditioning on the propensity score results in unbiased estimation of the expected difference in observed responses to two treatments. The degree to which conditioning on the propensity score introduces bias into the estimation of the conditional odds ratio or conditional hazard ratio, which are frequently used as measures of treatment effect in observational studies, has not… CONTINUE READING
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