Conditioned response models of placebo phenomena: further support

  title={Conditioned response models of placebo phenomena: further support},
  author={Nicholas J. Voudouris and Connie L. Peck and Grahame Coleman},
The placebo effect in pain reduction: The influence of conditioning experiences and response expectancies
The results show that placebo-induced pain reduction can be obtained as a result of a conditioning procedure, independent of verbally induced expectancies, and conditioned placebo responses were evident at the subjective level and no placebo effects emerged at the physiological level.
Classical Conditioning as a Distinct Mechanism of Placebo Effects
  • P. Bąbel
  • Psychology, Biology
    Front. Psychiatry
  • 2019
The results support the idea that placebo effects can be learned by classical conditioning either consciously or unconsciously, and the existing body of evidence is limited to classically conditioned placebo effects in pain, that is, placebo analgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia.
Neurobiology of Placebo Effects: Expectations or Learning? Running title: Theories of The Placebo Effect
This work examined the possibility that the magnitude of objective neurochemical responses to placebo administration would depend on individual expectation-effectiveness comparisons and showed that such comparisons, and not expectations per se, predict behavioral placebo responses and placebo-induced activation of μ-opioid receptor mediated neurotransmission in regions relevant to error detection.
Classical conditioning and the placebo effect
How prior experience shapes placebo analgesia
Nonconscious activation of placebo and nocebo pain responses
Significant placebo and nocebo effects were found in both experiment 1 (using clearly visible stimuli) and experiment 2 (using nonconscious stimuli), indicating that the mechanisms responsible for placebo andNocebo Effects can operate without conscious awareness of the triggering cues.
The placebo effect: dissolving the expectancy versus conditioning debate.
The authors review the literature on the 2 main models of the placebo effect: expectancy theory and classical conditioning and suggest that classical conditioning procedures are one shaping factor but that verbal information can also shape placebo effects.


Conditioned placebo responses.
It is suggested that placebo responses are conditionable in the laboratory in both a positive and negative direction.
A conditioned response model of the placebo effect
A model of the placebo response as a conditioned response(CR) is presented and predictions from this model are listed and the relationship between placebo responding and hypnotizability is discussed.
Contiguity of Placebo Administration and Misattribution
  • M. Weiner
  • Psychology
    Perceptual and motor skills
  • 1971
It was found that only those Ss who misattributed both physiological and psychological symptoms showed evidence of fear reduction, and the importance of the contiguity between the onset of arousal and the administration of a placebo upon fear reduction was tested.
Cognitive dissonance and the placebo response: The effect of differential justification for undergoing dummy injections
Studied the effects of cognitive dissonance on pain perception and attitudes towards injections in 48 student subjects of both sexes (average age = 20.5). In a ‘forced compliance’ design, subjects
Response expectancy as a determinant of experience and behavior.
Response expectancies, defined as ex- pectancies of the occurrence of nonvolitional responses, have generally been ignored in theories of learning. Research on placebos, hypnosis, and fear reduction
The Interaction of Drugs with Placebos in the Control of Pain and Anxiety
The observed effect of drug administration is a combination of the pharmacological effects and the placebo effects, which result from the patient's knowledge that he has been treated plus his conception of the nature of the treatment.