Conditioned Flavor Avoidance, Preference, and Indifference Produced by Intragastric Infusions of Galactose, Glucose, and Fructose in Rats

@article{Sclafani1999ConditionedFA,
  title={Conditioned Flavor Avoidance, Preference, and Indifference Produced by Intragastric Infusions of Galactose, Glucose, and Fructose in Rats},
  author={Anthony P. Sclafani and Lawrence J Fanizza and Antonio Azzar{\'a}},
  journal={Physiology \& Behavior},
  year={1999},
  volume={67},
  pages={227-234}
}
Galactose consumption induces conditioned flavor avoidance in rats.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that galactose has aversive postingestive consequences in adult rats even at low concentrations (20 g/L), unlike lactose intolerance, which is due to intestinal malabsorption.
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References

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Intragastric glucose but not fructose conditions robust flavor preferences in rats.
TLDR
The preference findings indicate that the postingestive consequences of glucose are much more reinforcing than those of fructose, and appears that food conditioning is mediated by chemospecific actions of nutrients rather than their general satiating or energy repleting effects.
Diabetic Rats Prefer Glucose-paired Flavors over Fructose-paired Flavors
TLDR
The results indicate that a normal insulin secretory response to glucose is not required for glucose-conditioned flavor preference and that insulin may play some role in glucose conditioning although this may be secondary to alterations in gastrointestinal motility characteristic of diabetic animals.
Capsaicin attenuates feeding suppression but not reinforcement by intestinal nutrients.
TLDR
Results indicate that, unlike the satiating effect of intestinal carbohydrate and fat, the reinforcing actions of these nutrients are not mediated by capsaicin-sensitive visceral afferents, and imply that the postingestive reinforcement produced by nutrients is not dependent on the nutrients' satiating quality.
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