Concussion in Professional Football: Helmet Testing to Assess Impact Performance—Part 11

@article{Pellman2006ConcussionIP,
  title={Concussion in Professional Football: Helmet Testing to Assess Impact Performance—Part 11},
  author={Elliot J. Pellman and D. Viano and C. Withnall and N. Shewchenko and C. Bir and P. Halstead},
  journal={Neurosurgery},
  year={2006},
  volume={58},
  pages={78-96}
}
OBJECTIVE:National Football League (NFL) concussions occur at an impact velocity of 9.3 ± 1.9 m/s (20.8 ± 4.2 mph) oblique on the facemask, side, and back of the helmet. There is a need for new testing to evaluate helmet performance for impacts causing concussion. This study provides background on new testing methods that form a basis for supplemental National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) helmet standards. METHODS:First, pendulum impacts were used to simulate… Expand
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TLDR
With newer football helmets, there was a trend toward 10 to 20% lower risks of concussion in reconstructed National Football League game collisions, however, a few designs and cases showed increased responses. Expand
CONCUSSION IN PROFESSIONAL FOOTBALL: BIOMECHANICS OF THE STRUCK PLAYER—PART 14
TLDR
Although efforts are underway to reduce impact acceleration through helmet padding, further study is needed of head kinematics after impact and their contribution to concussion, including rapid head displacement, z-axis rotation, and neck tension up to the time of maximum strain in the midbrain. Expand
Comparison of Laboratory and On-Field Performance of American Football Helmets.
TLDR
Analysis showed that NFL-prohibited helmet models exhibited a significantly higher odds of concussion relative to other helmet models, indicating that helmets which exhibited reduced impact severity in the laboratory tests were also generally associated with lower concussion rates on-field. Expand
Development and Evaluation of a Test Method for Assessing the Performance of American Football Helmets.
TLDR
A combination of video review, videogrammetry, and laboratory reconstructions was used to characterize concussive impacts from National Football League games during the 2015-2017 seasons, and overall helmet performance varied by 1.1 ± 0.9%, while the standard deviation in helmet performance score was 7.0%. Expand
Comparison of impact performance between youth and varsity football helmets
  • D. W. Sproule, S. Rowson
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part P, Journal of sports engineering and technology
  • 2017
TLDR
The age group the helmet is intended for did not have a significant effect on the impact performance of the helmet in linear acceleration, rotational acceleration, or concussion correlate, and these data serve as a reference point for future youth-specific helmet design and helmet standards. Expand
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Youth football helmets currently undergo the same impact testing and criteria as varsity helmets, although youth football players differ from their adult counterparts in anthropometry, physiology,Expand
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TLDR
A concussion model was developed to simulate the high velocity of impact and rapid head ΔV of concussions in National Football League players and can be used to evaluate immediate and latent effects of concussion and more severe injury with greater impact mass. Expand
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When the immunohistochemical results are extrapolated to professional football players, concussions result in no or minimal brain injury. Expand
The biomechanics of concussive helmet-to-ground impacts in the National Football league.
TLDR
The duration of a helmet-to-ground impact was generally in the range of 15 - 30 ms, suggesting that the impact surface provides little ride-down, and lengthening this duration could be beneficial both by reducing the peak linear and rotational acceleration and by shifting the impact toward a time regime where brain strain is related to rotations rather than rotational velocity. Expand
A Review of On-Field Investigations into the Biomechanics of Concussion in Football and Translation to Head Injury Mitigation Strategies.
TLDR
New advances in head impact sensor technology allow for biomechanical measurements in helmeted and non-helmeted sports for a more complete understanding of concussion tolerance in different demographics, which will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of injury and human tolerance to head impact. Expand
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