Concussion in Professional Football: Helmet Testing to Assess Impact Performance—Part 11

@article{Pellman2006ConcussionIP,
  title={Concussion in Professional Football: Helmet Testing to Assess Impact Performance—Part 11},
  author={Elliot J. Pellman and David C. Viano and Chris Withnall and Nicholas Shewchenko and Cynthia Bir and P. David Halstead},
  journal={Neurosurgery},
  year={2006},
  volume={58},
  pages={78-96}
}
OBJECTIVE:National Football League (NFL) concussions occur at an impact velocity of 9.3 ± 1.9 m/s (20.8 ± 4.2 mph) oblique on the facemask, side, and back of the helmet. There is a need for new testing to evaluate helmet performance for impacts causing concussion. This study provides background on new testing methods that form a basis for supplemental National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) helmet standards. METHODS:First, pendulum impacts were used to simulate… 

Concussion in Professional Football: Performance of Newer Helmets in Reconstructed Game Impacts—Part 13

With newer football helmets, there was a trend toward 10 to 20% lower risks of concussion in reconstructed National Football League game collisions, however, a few designs and cases showed increased responses.

CONCUSSION IN PROFESSIONAL FOOTBALL: BIOMECHANICS OF THE STRUCK PLAYER—PART 14

Although efforts are underway to reduce impact acceleration through helmet padding, further study is needed of head kinematics after impact and their contribution to concussion, including rapid head displacement, z-axis rotation, and neck tension up to the time of maximum strain in the midbrain.

Comparison of Laboratory and On-Field Performance of American Football Helmets.

Analysis showed that NFL-prohibited helmet models exhibited a significantly higher odds of concussion relative to other helmet models, indicating that helmets which exhibited reduced impact severity in the laboratory tests were also generally associated with lower concussion rates on-field.

Comparison of impact performance between youth and varsity football helmets

  • D. W. SprouleS. Rowson
  • Medicine
    Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part P, Journal of sports engineering and technology
  • 2017
The age group the helmet is intended for did not have a significant effect on the impact performance of the helmet in linear acceleration, rotational acceleration, or concussion correlate, and these data serve as a reference point for future youth-specific helmet design and helmet standards.

Evaluation of the Biomechanical Performance of Youth Football Helmets

Youth football helmets currently undergo the same impact testing and criteria as varsity helmets, although youth football players differ from their adult counterparts in anthropometry, physiology,

CONCUSSION IN PROFESSIONAL FOOTBALL: ANIMAL MODEL OF BRAIN INJURY—PART 15

A concussion model was developed to simulate the high velocity of impact and rapid head ΔV of concussions in National Football League players and can be used to evaluate immediate and latent effects of concussion and more severe injury with greater impact mass.

A Review of On-Field Investigations into the Biomechanics of Concussion in Football and Translation to Head Injury Mitigation Strategies.

New advances in head impact sensor technology allow for biomechanical measurements in helmeted and non-helmeted sports for a more complete understanding of concussion tolerance in different demographics, which will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of injury and human tolerance to head impact.

Impact test comparisons of 20th and 21st century American football helmets.

The authors do not advocate reverting to leather headgear, but they do strongly recommend instituting helmet safety designs and testing standards, which encourage the minimization of linear and angular impact doses and injury risks in near- and subconcussive head impacts.

Impact Performance of Modern Football Helmets

Of the 17 helmet models, four provided a significant reduction in head responses compared to 1990s helmets, and one had significantly poorer performance.

Change in Size and Impact Performance of Football Helmets from the 1970s to 2010

The additional size and padding of the best 2010s helmets provide superior attenuation of impact forces in normal play and in conditions associated with concussion than helmets of the 1970s–1990s.
...

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