Concurrent use of methamphetamine, MDMA, LSD, ketamine, GHB, and flunitrazepam among American youths.

  title={Concurrent use of methamphetamine, MDMA, LSD, ketamine, GHB, and flunitrazepam among American youths.},
  author={Li-Tzy Wu and William E. Schlenger and Deborah M. Galvin},
  journal={Drug and alcohol dependence},
  volume={84 1},

Tables from this paper

Multiple drug ingestion by ecstasy abusers in the United States.

The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence and patterns of licit and illicit drugs in urine specimens of ecstasy users and to suggest caution is recommended in interpretation.

The variety of ecstasy/MDMA users: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on alcohol and related conditions.

The recent resurgence in ecstasy use among adults underscores the need to monitor trends in its use and the potential heterogeneity of ecstasy or MDMA users.

Hallucinogen-related disorders in a national sample of adolescents: the influence of ecstasy/MDMA use.

The risky cocktail: what combination effects can we expect between ecstasy and other amphetamines?

Predicting the cytotoxic effects of mixtures of four amphetaminic derivatives: MDMA, methamphetamine, 4-methylthioamphetamine and d-amphetamine in a human hepatoma cell line demonstrates that potentially harmful interactions among amphetamine drugs are expected when these drugs are taken concomitantly.

Difference in long-term relapse rates between youths with ketamine use and those with stimulants use

Compared to adolescents who use ketamine, those using MDMA or methamphetamine had higher relapse rates and were more likely to use the same type of drug upon relapsing.

Flunitrazepam intake in male offenders

It is suggested that antisocial behavior defined by Facet 4 in the studied subjects is more typical for FZ users than it is for non-FZ users, and clinicians should be aware that criminals with high scores on Facets 4 have a more than fourfold odds of being a FZ user.

Use and abuse of dissociative and psychedelic drugs in adolescence

Illicit Drug Use in a Community-Based Sample of Heterosexually Identified Emerging Adults

The data suggest that illicit drug use in emergent adulthood does not develop in a monolithic manner and synergies must be considered in relation to gender, school enrollment, and employment that first surface in the child and adolescent developmental stages.

Correlates of African American female adolescent offenders 3, 4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or “Ecstasy”) use and sexually transmitted infection morbidity

Prevention programs for adolescent offender populations should develop interventions that target adolescents’ substance use behavior as a function of STI risk taking as well as being culturally competent to deal specifically with these problem behaviors.



Prevalence and correlates of drug use and dependence in the United States. Results from the National Comorbidity Survey.

Use and dependence were found to be more common in cohorts born after World War II than those born before the end of the war and these, in turn, differed from the predictors of recent dependence among people with a lifetime history of dependence.

Is the Use of Ecstasy and Hallucinogens Increasing?

A substantial increase in both the use of ecstasy and related substances as well as hallucinogens is suggested, which is strongest in younger age groups, but the risk of first use of these substances continues to be present up to the age of 24 years.

Increasing use of "Ecstasy" (MDMA) and other hallucinogens on a college campus.

Mescaline/psilocybin and Ecstasy were more likely than the other drugs to have been used first during the students' college years, according to the 1990 study.

Shedding new light on the "safe" club drug: methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy)-related fatalities.

The MDMA-associated fatal events typically occur in young, otherwise healthy individuals, and MDMA's impact on the public health and safety of young adults and teenagers needs further assessment.

High prevalence of substance use disorders among adolescents who use marijuana and inhalants.

Death rates from ecstasy (MDMA, MDA) and polydrug use in England and Wales 1996–2002

This is the largest sample of ecstasy related deaths so far; possible explanations are given for the observed steady increase in ecstasy‐related deaths and a tentative ‘rationale’ for this polypharmacy combination is then proposed.