BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE Cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy has become the standard treatment modality for locally advanced cervical cancer. However, the optimal chemotherapy regimen combined with radiotherapy remains controversial. This study was to compare the therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of concurrent chemoradiotherapy with those of radiotherapy, and those among different regimens of concurrent chemoradiotherapy for stage IIB-IIIB cervical cancer. METHODS From Jan. 2003 to Dec. 2004, 285 patients with stage IIB-IIIB cervical cancer treated in Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Jiangxi Province were randomly assigned to receive radiotherapy alone or concurrent chemoradiotherapy. According to different chemotherapy regimens, patients in the concurrent chemoradiotheapy group were randomly chosen to receive radiotherapy with chemotherapy of bleomycin and cisplatin (RT+BP), radiotherapy with chemotherapy of taxol and carboplatin (RT+TP), and radiotherapy with chemotherapy of 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin (RT+FP). The 3-year survival rates and toxicity of different groups were compared. RESULTS After a median follow-up of 42 months, the 3-year survival was higher in the concurrent chemoradiotheray group (75%) than in the radiotherapy group (65%) (P=0.042). Acute treatment-related toxicity (grade III and IV) was higher in the concurrent chemoradiotherapy group than in the radiotherapy group (P<0.001); while the delayed treatment-related toxicity was similar in the two groups (P=0.613). The 3-year survival rates of BP, TP and FP chemoradiotherapy groups were 74%, 80% and 71%, without significant differences (P=0.792). Acute toxicities (grade III and IV) and delayed toxicities were similar among the three groups. CONCLUSIONS Concurrent chemoradiotherapy significantly improves the survival for patients with stage IIB-IIIB cervical cancer compared to radiotherapy alone. Among the three chemoradiotherapy regimens, radiotherapy combined with taxol and carboplatin exerts a slightly higher 3-year survival than the other two regimens with tolerable toxicity.