Concise Review: Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Their Phenotype, Differentiation Capacity, Immunological Features, and Potential for Homing

  title={Concise Review: Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Their Phenotype, Differentiation Capacity, Immunological Features, and Potential for Homing},
  author={Giselle Chamberlain and James M. Fox and Brian A. Ashton and Jim F Middleton},
  journal={STEM CELLS},
MSCs are nonhematopoietic stromal cells that are capable of differentiating into, and contribute to the regeneration of, mesenchymal tissues such as bone, cartilage, muscle, ligament, tendon, and adipose. MSCs are rare in bone marrow, representing ∼1 in 10,000 nucleated cells. Although not immortal, they have the ability to expand manyfold in culture while retaining their growth and multilineage potential. MSCs are identified by the expression of many molecules including CD105 (SH2) and CD73… 
Implications of mesenchymal stem cells in regenerative medicine
The main applications of mesenchymal stem in Regenerative Medicine and known mechanisms of homing and Immunomodulation of MSCs are discussed.
Murine Mesenchymal Stem Cells Exhibit a Restricted Repertoire of Functional Chemokine Receptors: Comparison with Human
The cell surface chemokine receptor repertoire of murine MSCs from bone marrow is defined, with a view to determining their migratory activity and the role ofChemokine receptors in in vivo models of disease and injury.
The mesenchymal stromal cell contribution to homeostasis
Some areas of growing interest in MSCs biology are discussed: their contribution to the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche, to regenerative medicine, their role in cancer and in therapy as delivery tools and their micro‐RNA (miRNA) signatures.
Stromal Stem Cells: Nature, Biology and Potential Therapeutic Applications
Recent studies indicate that MSCs resemble pericytes and emerge from the peripheral stromal region surrounding blood vessels, thus clarifying their broad regenerative potential in adult tissues.
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells
Both a systematic phenotypic in vivo characterization of the MSC population and the development of a reproducible and faithful in vivo assay that would test the ability of MSCs to self‐renew, proliferate, and differentiate in vivo are just beginning.
Immunomodulation by Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Recent advances that have broadened the understanding of the immunomodulatory properties of MSC are focused on and insight is provided as to their potential for clinical use as a cell-based therapy for immune-mediated disorders and, in particular, type 1 diabetes.
Mesenchymal stem cells: immunobiology and role in immunomodulation and tissue regeneration.
Human MSC is discussed with particular reference to the expression of their surface markers, their role as immunomodulators and their multilineage differentiation potential and possible use in tissue regeneration and repair.
Therapeutic Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine
The current clinical and nonclinical data for the use of MSCs in tissue repair and potential therapeutic role in various diseases are summarized.
Mesenchymal stem cells in the umbilical cord: phenotypic characterization, secretome and applications in central nervous system regenerative medicine.
A comprehensive review on MSCs populations of the WJ and how these cell populations may be used for future applications in CNS regenerative medicine is made by critically reviewing the work that has been performed so far.
Biotechnological and biomedical applications of mesenchymal stem cells as a therapeutic system
The functional role of MSCs in modulating immune responses, their capability in homing to injured tissue, and their clinical therapeutic potential are emphasized.


Phenotypical and functional properties of human bone marrow mesenchymal progenitor cells
Results demonstrate that adherent marrow‐derived cells cultured in the absence of hematopoietic cells and differentiation stimulus give rise to a population of cells with phenotypical and functional features of mesenchymal progenitors.
Immunobiology of human mesenchymal stem cells and future use in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
  • K. Le Blanc, O. Ringdén
  • Medicine, Biology
    Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
  • 2005
Chondrogenic differentiation of cultured human mesenchymal stem cells from marrow.
Increased understanding of the induction of chondrogenic differentiation should lead to further progress in defining the mechanisms responsible for the generation of cartilaginous tissues, their maintenance, and their regeneration.
Isolation and characterization of bone marrow multipotential mesenchymal progenitor cells.
This study shows the distinct phenotype, morphology, and method of isolation of BM MPCs, which may have implications for defining the physiologic roles of MPCs in arthritis, bone diseases, and joint regeneration.
A small proportion of mesenchymal stem cells strongly expresses functionally active CXCR4 receptor capable of promoting migration to bone marrow.
It is shown that CXCR4, although present at the surface of a small subset of MSCs, is important for mediating specific migration of these cells to bone marrow.
Human adipose tissue is a source of multipotent stem cells.
To confirm whether adipose tissue contains stem cells, the PLA population and multiple clonal isolates were analyzed using several molecular and biochemical approaches and PLA cells exhibited unique characteristics distinct from those seen in MSCs, including differences in CD marker profile and gene expression.
Human mesenchymal stem cells inhibit differentiation and function of monocyte-derived dendritic cells.
It is suggested for the first time that human MSCs could suppress monocyte differentiation into DCs, the most potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs), thus indicating the versatile regulation of M SCs on the ultimate specific immune response.
Characterization of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from murine bone marrow by negative selection
FGF2 appears to function as a mitogen and self‐maintenance factor for murine MSCs enriched from bone marrow by negative selection and yields a cell population devoid of hematopoietic and endothelial cells that is phenotypically and functionally equivalent to MSCS.
Migration of mesenchymal stem cells to heart allografts during chronic rejection
Data suggests that MSC may be attracted to this site to actively participate in tissue repair during chronic rejection, and given the robust migration, the inhibition of MSC differentiation toward fibroblast progeny and induction toward the myocyte lineage may serve as a new strategy for treatment of chronic rejection and allograft tissue repair.
Multipotential Mesenchymal Stem Cells Are Mobilized into Peripheral Blood by Hypoxia
It is shown that MSCs are regularly observed in the circulating blood of rats and that the circulating MSC pool is consistently and dramatically increased (by almost 15‐fold) when animals are exposed to chronic hypoxia.