Conciliarism and the American Founding

@article{Breidenbach2016ConciliarismAT,
  title={Conciliarism and the American Founding},
  author={Michael D. Breidenbach},
  journal={The William and Mary Quarterly},
  year={2016},
  volume={73},
  pages={467 - 500}
}
Conventional understandings of Catholicism, especially the claim that the pope held temporal power over all civil rulers, presented a signal challenge to early American Catholics’ civil and religious liberty. Yet reform-minded Catholics in the North Atlantic world asserted their independence from the temporal powers of external authorities, including the pope. Catholics who participated in the American founding, such as Charles Carroll of Carrollton and John Carroll, drew from an intellectual… 
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