Conceptualizing Willingness to Communicate in a L2: A Situational Model of L2 Confidence and Affiliation

@article{MacIntyre1998ConceptualizingWT,
  title={Conceptualizing Willingness to Communicate in a L2: A Situational Model of L2 Confidence and Affiliation},
  author={Peter D. MacIntyre and Zolt{\'a}n D{\"o}rnyei and Richard Cl{\'e}ment and Kimberly A. Noels},
  journal={The Modern Language Journal},
  year={1998},
  volume={82},
  pages={545-562}
}
Why do some students seek, while others avoid, second language (L2) communication? Many language teachers have encountered students high in linguistic competence who are unwilling to use their L2 for communication whereas other students, with only minimal linguistic knowledge, seem to communicate in the L2 whenever possible. Despite excellent communicative competence, spontaneous and sustained use of the L2 is not ensured. A colleague, who teaches a L2 and whose L2 competence is excellent, is… Expand

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