Conceptual and perceptual factors in the picture superiority effect

  title={Conceptual and perceptual factors in the picture superiority effect},
  author={Georg Stenberg},
  journal={European Journal of Cognitive Psychology},
  pages={813 - 847}
  • G. Stenberg
  • Published 1 November 2006
  • Psychology
  • European Journal of Cognitive Psychology
The picture superiority effect, i.e., better memory for pictures than for corresponding words, has been variously ascribed to a conceptual or a perceptual processing advantage. The present study aimed to disentangle perceptual and conceptual contributions. Pictures and words were tested for recognition in both their original formats and translated into participants’ second language. Multinomial Processing Tree (Batchelder & Riefer, 1999) and MINERVA (Hintzman, 1984) models were fitted to the… 
Listening to the Picture-Superiority Effect: Evidence for the Conceptual-Distinctiveness Account of Picture Superiority in Recognition
A new framework for understanding the PSE is proposed, wherein dual coding underpins the free-recall PSE, but conceptual distinctiveness underpin the recognition PSE.
The picture superiority effect in associative memory: A developmental study.
The results suggest distinct contributions of semantic binding and memory strategies to associative memory, while the last seem to account particularly for age-related differences in associative recall.
Increasing word distinctiveness eliminates the picture superiority effect in recognition: Evidence for the physical-distinctiveness account
A novel test of the physical-distinctiveness account of picture superiority is presented: If the greater physical variability of pictures relative to words is responsible for their mnemonic benefit, then increasing the distinctiveness of words and/or reducing the physical variabilityof pictures should reduce or eliminate the picture superiority effect.
Distance-dependent processing of pictures and words.
The authors argue that differences in the processing of pictures and words emanate from the physical similarity of pictures, but not words, to the referents and are preferably used to represent distal objects in space, time, and social perspective.
Semantic encoding enhances the pictorial superiority effect in the oldest-old*
The data strongly suggest that semantic elaboration is an effective compensatory mechanism underlying preserved episodic memory performance that persists well into the ninth decade of life.
Pictorial superiority effects in oldest-old people
The data strongly suggest that the oldest-old can utilise nonverbal memory codes to support long-term retention as effectively as do younger adults.
Does rehearsal benefit visual memory? The role of semantic associations in the maintenance of intact and phase-scrambled scenes
The results suggest that rehearsal increased subsequent memory with SS but not NS, and neural modulation during the delay period depends on both task difficulty and maintenance strategy.
Abbreviated title : Rehearsal and Visual Memory Author names and affiliations :
There is a rich behavioral literature on articulatory rehearsal for verbal stimuli, suggesting that rehearsal may facilitate memory, but few studies have examined the benefits for visual stimuli.
Conceptual distinctiveness supports detailed visual long-term memory for real-world objects.
Object categories with conceptually distinctive exemplars showed less interference in memory as the number of exemplars increased, and observers' capacity to remember visual information in long-term memory depends more on conceptual structure than perceptual distinctiveness.


Is there a picture superiority effect in perceptual implicit tasks?
Pictures are remembered better than their names. This picture superiority effect in episodic memory has been attributed either to the greater sensory distinctiveness of pictures or to their greater
The picture-superiority effect in category-association tests
In two experiments we examined the picture-superiority effect in the framework of the transfer-appropriate processing approach recently advocated by Roediger, Weldon, and Challis (1989). For the
The picture superiority effect in a cross-modality recognition task
A two-stage recognition process is suggested, in which the first is based on perceptual familiarity and the second uses semantic links for a retrieval search, and congruence between study and test modalities consistently facilitated recognition.
The picture superiority effect: support for the distinctiveness model.
More cost was observed for pictures than words, supporting the distinctiveness model of the picture superiority effect.
Pictures, images, and recollective experience.
  • S. Dewhurst, M. Conway
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 1994
It is proposed that conscious recollective experience in recognition memory is cued by attributes of retrieved memories such as sensory-perceptual attributes and records of cognitive operations performed at encoding.
Altering retrieval demands reverses the picture superiority effect
It is concluded that the type of retrieval query determines whether pictures or words will exhibit superior retention, and the results conform to the principle of transfer appropriate processing by which performance on transfer or retention tests benefits to the extent that the tests recapitulate operations used during learning.
Picture superiority in conceptual memory: Dissociative effects of encoding and retrieval tasks
Picture superiority can be eliminated or reversed depending on the type of conceptual encoding task and conceptual-retrieval test.
Meaning and modality: influences of context, semantic memory organization, and perceptual predictability on picture processing.
Using event-related potentials (ERPs), the authors investigated the influences of sentence context, semantic memory organization, and perceptual predictability on picture processing, showing that semantic processing is not amodal.