Concepts to utilize in describing thermoregulation and neurophysiological evidence for how the system works

  title={Concepts to utilize in describing thermoregulation and neurophysiological evidence for how the system works},
  author={Kazuyuki Kanosue and Larry I. Crawshaw and Kei Nagashima and Tamae Yoda},
  journal={European Journal of Applied Physiology},
We would like to emphasize about the system involved with homeostatic maintenance of body temperature. First, the primary mission of the thermoregulatory system is to defend core temperature (Tcore) against changes in ambient temperature (Ta), the most frequently encountered disturbance for the system. Ta should be treated as a feedforward input to the system, which has not been adequately recognized by thermal physiologists. Second, homeostatic demands from outside the thermoregulatory system… 

Central circuitries for body temperature regulation and fever.

  • Kazuhiro Nakamura
  • Biology
    American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology
  • 2011
This review summarizes the current understandings of the central circuitry mechanisms that underlie nonshivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue, shivering thermogenic in skeletal muscles, thermoregulatory cardiac regulation, heat-loss regulation through cutaneous vasomotion, and ACTH release.

The thermoregulation system and how it works.

Physiological benefits likely underlie the systematic recruitment of thermoeffectors*

This paper quantified the recruitment of autonomic and behavioral thermoeffectors relative to changes in body temperature in humans and tested the hypothesis that, in resting humans, changes in skin blood flow would be elicited by the smallestChanges in skin temperature, that further changes inskin temperature would bring about the initiation of thermal behavior, and that sweating or changes in metabolism would be elicit by the largest changes inSkin temperature, which would more closely coincide with changes in core temperature.

Body temperature regulation during acclimation to cold and hypoxia in rats.

Afferent pathways for autonomic and shivering thermoeffectors.

Skin temperature: its role in thermoregulation

Whether skin temperature represents ambient temperature and serves as a feedforward signal for the thermoregulation system, or whether it is one of the body's temperatures and provides feedback, is analyzed.

Regulation of Body Temperature by the Nervous System

Physiological and Behavioral Mechanisms of Thermoregulation in Mammals

This research could contribute substantially to understanding the drastic modification of environments that have severe consequences for animals, such as loss of appetite, low productivity, neonatal hypothermia, and thermal shock, among others.



The Central Organization of the Thermoregulatory System

Recently electrophysiological analysis identified some neurons sending axons directly to the spinal cord for the control of thermoregulatory effectors, including midbrain reticulospinal neurons for shivering and medullary raphe nuclei for skin vasomotor control.

Neuronal circuitries involved in thermoregulation

A thermosensory pathway that controls body temperature

Using in vivo electrophysiological and anatomical approaches in the rat, it is found that lateral parabrachial neurons are pivotal in this pathway by glutamatergically transmitting cutaneous thermosensory signals received from spinal somatosensory neurons directly to the thermoregulatory command center, the preoptic area.

Central control of thermogenesis in mammals

The research leading to a model of the feedforward reflex pathway through which environmental cold stimulates thermogenesis is summarized and the influence on this thermoregulatory network of the pyrogenic mediator, prostaglandin E2, to increase body temperature is discussed.

Contribution of thermal and nonthermal factors to the regulation of body temperature in humans.

It is concluded that, although there is no evidence to doubt the existence of the HP and HL pathways reciprocally inhibiting one another, it appears that such a mechanism is of little consequence when comparing the effects of nonthermal factors on the thermoregulatory system.

Thermosensitive neurons in the brain.

  • T. Nakayama
  • Biology
    The Japanese journal of physiology
  • 1985
Since the discovery of thermosensitive neurons in the POAH, numerous papers have been published suggesting the primary importance of these neurons in thermoregulation. The basic properties of the

Physiological Controls and Regulations

The concept of "set point," for example, explains how the hypothalamus can control temperature efficiently and yet permit fever and diurnal variations, a process which Hammel and Hardy cover in two stimulating chapters.

Neural organization and evolution of thermal regulation in mammals.

This article proposes a modification of the currently accepted view of the central neural integration of body temperature. In place of a single integrator with multiple inputs and outputs, the new

Human medullary responses to cooling and rewarming the skin: a functional MRI study.

It is demonstrated that human rostral medullary raphé neurons are selectively activated in response to a thermoregulatory challenge and point to the location of thermoreGulatory neurons homologous to those of the raphÉ pallidus nucleus in rodents.

Effects of fasting on thermoregulatory processes and the daily oscillations in rats.

The results suggest that, in the fasting condition, T(core) in the dark phase was maintained by suppression of the heat loss mechanism, despite the reduction of metabolic heat production, in contrast to the response was weakened in the light phase, decreasing T( core) greatly.