As a promising downlink multiple access scheme for future radio access (FRA), this paper discusses the concept and practical considerations of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) with a successive interference canceller (SIC) at the receiver side. The goal is to clarify the benefits of NOMA over orthogonal multiple access (OMA) such as OFDMA adopted by Long-Term Evolution (LTE). Practical considerations of NOMA, such as multi-user power allocation, signalling overhead, SIC error propagation, performance in high mobility scenarios, and combination with multiple input multiple output (MIMO) are discussed. Using computer simulations, we provide system-level performance of NOMA taking into account practical aspects of the cellular system and some of the key parameters and functionalities of the LTE radio interface such as adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) and frequency-domain scheduling. We show under multiple configurations that the system-level performance achieved by NOMA is higher by more than 30% compared to OMA.