Concentrations of parabens in human breast tumours

  title={Concentrations of parabens in human breast tumours},
  author={Philippa D Darbre and Alhakam A. Aljarrah and Walter R. Miller and Nick G. Coldham and Maurice J. Sauer and George S. Pope},
  journal={Journal of Applied Toxicology},
Parabens are used as preservatives in many thousands of cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical products to which the human population is exposed. Although recent reports of the oestrogenic properties of parabens have challenged current concepts of their toxicity in these consumer products, the question remains as to whether any of the parabens can accumulate intact in the body from the long‐term, low‐dose levels to which humans are exposed. Initial studies reported here show that parabens can be… 
Significance of the detection of esters of p‐hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) in human breast tumours
It is reported that esters of p‐hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) can be detected in samples of tissue from human breast tumours, a major aetiological factor in the growth and development of the majority of human breast cancers.
Urinary Concentrations of Parabens in Chinese Young Adults: Implications for Human Exposure
Urinary concentration of parabens was 2-fold greater in females than in males, and the contribution of dietary intake to EDIurine was estimated to be 5.5, 2.6, and 0.42 % for Chinese males, Chinese females, and United States adults, respectively, which indicates the significance of nondietary sources ofParabens to human exposures.
Comprehensive Effects of Parabens in Human Physiology
Research indicated that women who have a high concentration of polyethylene paraben suffer from short menstrual periods and poor fertility, and current studies conducted on male rats have found that parabens negatively affect the function of the male reproductive system.
Combinations of parabens at concentrations measured in human breast tissue can increase proliferation of MCF‐7 human breast cancer cells
It is demonstrated that parabens, either alone or in combination, are present in human breast tissue at concentrations sufficient to stimulate the proliferation of MCF‐7 cells in vitro, and that functional consequences of the presence of paraben inhuman breast tissue should be assessed on the basis of all five parabEN and not single parabened individually.
The interaction between parabens and mitochondrial function in the testis may be key in explaining the contribution of paraben for a decrease in reproductive potential.
Parabens as Urinary Biomarkers of Exposure in Humans
The results, demonstrating the presence of urinary conjugates of paraben in humans, suggest that such conjugated parabens could be used as exposure biomarkers for human exposure to these compounds.
Minireview: Parabens Exposure and Breast Cancer
Evidence suggests that parabens may negatively interfere with some endocrine and intracrine targets relevant to breast carcinogenesis and future studies investigating paraben mixtures and their crosstalk with other EDCs or signaling pathways both in vitro and in vivo in the context of breast cancer development are warranted.


Oestrogenic activity of parabens in MCF7 human breast cancer cells
Parabens, oestrogenicity, underarm cosmetics and breast cancer: a perspective on a hypothesis
  • P. Harvey
  • Medicine
    Journal of applied toxicology : JAT
  • 2003
There are few data on the use of underarm cosmetics and the risk of breast cancer, and although one recent retrospective interview‐based study found no association there is a need for more thorough investigation taking into account the type of chemicals used.
Lack of oestrogenic effects of food preservatives (parabens) in uterotrophic assays.
  • A. Hossaini, J. Larsen, J. Larsen
  • Biology, Medicine
    Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • 2000
Oestrogenic activity of isobutylparaben in vitro and in vivo
Results here show that branching of the alkyl chain to isobutylparaben increases oestrogenic activity beyond that of the equivalent length linear alkyL chain in n‐butyl paraben.
Effects of butylparaben on the male reproductive system in rats
  • S. Oishi
  • Biology
    Toxicology and industrial health
  • 2001
The results of the present experiments show for the first time that exposure of a postweaning mammal to butylparaben had an adverse effect on the secretion of testosterone and in the functions of the male reproductive system.
Some alkyl hydroxy benzoate preservatives (parabens) are estrogenic.
Findings from in vitro and in vivo studies which confirm that a range of alkyl hydroxy benzoate preservatives (parabens) are weakly estrogenic are reported, suggesting that the safety in use of these chemicals should be reassessed.
Relative abundance of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in adipose tissue and serum of women in Long Island, New York.
  • S. Stellman, M. Djordjevic, A. Nafziger
  • Chemistry
    Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • 1998
Either serum or adipose OCP/PCB levels of a variety of environmental organochlorine compounds may serve as useful biomarkers of body burden, but differed substantially from patterns reported in occupationally exposed workers.
Oestrogenic activity of benzylparaben
It is demonstrated that the oestrogenicity of methylparaben can be increased by the addition of an aryl group as well as by lengthening or branching the alkyl grouping.
Increased concentrations of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in cases with breast cancer — results from a case—control study
Breast tissue concentration of OCDD was increased in cancer patients, whereas the concentrations of other PCDDs and PCDFs were equal in cases and controls, and increased odds ratio (OR) was obtained for OCDD.
Chlororganic Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Breast Tissue of Women with Benign and Malignant Breast Disease
Abstract. Persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons assimilated through the diet may, as a result of their carcinogenic, immunotoxic, and, at least in regard to certain of these substances, estrogenic