Computing the American Way: Contextualizing the Early US Computer Industry

  title={Computing the American Way: Contextualizing the Early US Computer Industry},
  author={T. Haigh},
  journal={IEEE Annals of the History of Computing},
  • T. Haigh
  • Published 2010
  • Engineering, Computer Science
  • IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
Drawing on work from business, social, and labor history, this article reinterprets the early domestic US computer industry in its broader economic and political context. Contrary to popular imagination, the early computer industry emerges as one devoted primarily to government business, liberal in its political leanings, and with a paternalist corporate culture profoundly shaped by the threat of unionization. 
Foregrounding the Background: Business, Economics, Labor, and Government Policy as Shaping Forces in Early Digital Computing History
This paper places the early history of digital computing in the United States, during the period from 1945 to 1960, in the larger historical context of American business, labor, and policy. ItExpand
IBM's Tiny Peripheral: Finland and the Tensions of Transnationality
IBM Finland, a small national subsidiary, was at once a Finnish business and an interface to much larger networks of technological innovation and knowledge sharing. We contextualize its developmentExpand
IBM's World Citizens: Valentim Bouças and the Politics of IT Expansion in Authoritarian Brazil
  • Colette Perold
  • Computer Science, Political Science
  • IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
  • 2020
This article analyzes the politics of the International Business Machine's (IBM) expansion in interwar Brazil. It does so by focusing on Valentim Bouças, IBM's first representative in Brazil, and anExpand
IBM Rebuilds Europe: The Curious Case of the Transnational Typewriter
In the decade after the Second World War IBM rebuilt its European operations as integrated, wholly owned subsidiaries of its World Trade Corporation, chartered in 1949. Long before the EuropeanExpand
When Computers Were Amateur
  • Kevin Gotkin
  • Engineering, Computer Science
  • IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
  • 2014
The author offers two readings of the newsletters: one that looks at the discussion of schematics as a contested representation of amateur expertise and the other that reveals the crucial links between amateur practice and domesticity. Expand
Analysis of competition in the mobile phone markets of the United States and Europe
Competition in an economic context is a widely studied phenomenon with a significant body of accumulated research and theory. However, competition in the mobile phone industry, despite its prevalenceExpand
Exploring the Early Digital
This introductory chapter outlines the objectives of the book, explaining how adopting “early digital” as a frame can encourage new perspectives on established topics within the history of computingExpand
Statistical demand-pull in 1930’s U.S.A and Germany: Good will, welfare and warfare
Abstract In 1994 Jan van den Ende observed, “During the 1930s more and more statistics were being carried out on punched-card machines. An important reason was the increasing complexity of theExpand
Into a Wild New Yonder: the United States Air Force and the Origins of Its Information Age
................................................ i
Habitual Interaction Estranged
Marx’s alienation, dialectical materialism and stratification theory, provides a lens through which to explore an explosion of statistical studies regarding on-line interaction and possible InternetExpand


The Emerging Organizational Synthesis In Modern American History
Almost unnoticed in the midst of revisionist attacks on progressive history and the rise of the New Left, an organizational synthesis has been emerging which offers much to the student of modernExpand
Creating the Computer: Government, Industry and High Technology
The development of the first electronic digital computers in the 1940s signaled the beginning of a new and distinctive type of industryan industry marked by competition through innovation, and by theExpand
The Closed World: Computers and the Politics of Discourse in Cold War America
From the Publisher: The Closed World offers a radical alternative to the canonical histories of computers and cognitive science. Arguing that we can make sense of computers as tools only when weExpand
Modern Manors: Welfare Capitalism since the New Deal
Acknowledgments 1The Coming of Welfare Capitalism 2Modernizing Welfare Capitalism 3Preserving the Past: Eastman Kodak 4Changing Styles: Sears Roebuck 5Recasting Company Unions: Thompson ProductsExpand
Red, White, and “Big Blue”: IBM and the Business-Government Interface in the United States, 1956–2000
This article describes the evolution of IBM's effort to manage its relationships with the U.S. government from the time that Thomas Watson, Jr. became CEO. While the Watson family controlled theExpand
Consumer Politics: A New History of the Rise and Fall of the New Deal Order
In 1989, Steven Fraser and Gary Gerstle edited a volume by major American historians that told the story of The Rise and Fall of the New Deal Order, 19301980 (1989). They traced the rise to the 1930sExpand
Negotiated Loyalty: Welfare Capitalism and the Shoeworkers of Endicott Johnson
The rapid rise of a huge and impersonal industrial order in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and the often violent reactions that it engendered challenged Americans' facile adherenceExpand
A business and its beliefs : the ideas that helped build I.BM
This is the timeless business book that still brings perspective and guidance to today's bottom-line executives. When first published in 1963, IBM CEO Thomas Watson Jr.'s "A Business and Its Beliefs"Expand
Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and Its Technology
Hollerith - inventor and entrepreneur - getting started, addressing the census problem, the first practical test, obtaining patent protection, entrepreneurial setbacks, winning the census business,Expand
Dwight D. Eisenhower and the Corporate Commonwealth
WE KNOW MORE ABOUT DWIGHT DAVID EISENHOWER than ever before. The papers of his presidency, now open to scholars, constitute a documentary record of extraordinary richness. Scarcely a month goes by,Expand