Computing Machinery and Intelligence

  title={Computing Machinery and Intelligence},
  author={Alan M. Turing},
  • A. Turing
  • Published 1 October 1950
  • Philosophy
  • Mind
I propose to consider the question, “Can machines think?”♣ This should begin with definitions of the meaning of the terms “machine” and “think”. The definitions might be framed so as to reflect so far as possible the normal use of the words, but this attitude is dangerous. If the meaning of the words “machine” and “think” are to be found by examining how they are commonly used it is difficult to escape the conclusion that the meaning and the answer to the question, “Can machines think?” is to… 

Computing Machinery and Intelligence


Intelligence without neurons: a Turing Test for plants?

“I propose to consider the question, ‘Can machines think?’ This should begin with definitions of the meaning of the terms ‘machine’ and ‘think’,” Alan Turing (1950), who makes a very important point: the attitude to frame definitions on the "normal use of words”, i.e., to give a new and different meaning to terms that are in everyday use already, is “dangerous”.

Can computers be intelligent? Artificial intelligence and conceptual change

This work shall argue that the extension of the term “intelligent” (or “intelligence”) can justifiably and systematically be made more general, and represents a significant departure from traditional approaches.

Is Artificial Intelligence Possible ?

In this paper the question, which is also the title of this paper, “Is artificial intelligence possible?” is examined. We investigate earlier thoughts regarding this question by famous thinkers such

Computing Machines Can't Be Intelligent (...and Turing Said So)

  • P. Kugel
  • Computer Science
    Minds and Machines
  • 2004
The author explains how giving computers more ``initiative'' can allow them to do more than compute and says why he believes and believes that Turing believed that they will have to go beyond computation before they can become genuinely intelligent.

The Turing Test

Alan Turing believed that an actual computer, if properly programmed, perhaps programmed to learn as a child does, might one day pass the test and produce verbal behavior that was indistinguishable from that of a human being.

Can Humans Think ?

For many years, computer scientists have been concerned with whether computers can think. Considerable thought, therefore, goes into designing “thinking” computer systems and into wondering whether

On Computing Machinery and Intelligence

The Turing Test has been part of the lexicon of artificial intelligence ever since Turing proposed it in his famous paper, “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” (1950), but close reading suggests that Turing’s real purpose was to attack the arguments of skeptics so as to establish that there is no reason to believe computers cannot be intelligent.

Can an AI learn political theory?

While Turing anticipated “machine learning,” his prescience brings to the foreground the yet unsolved problem of how humans might teach or shape AIs to behave in ways that align with moral standards.



On computable numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem

  • A. Turing
  • Computer Science
    Proc. London Math. Soc.
  • 1937
This chapter discusses the application of the diagonal process of the universal computing machine, which automates the calculation of circle and circle-free numbers.

An Unsolvable Problem of Elementary Number Theory

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Calculating Instruments and Machines

This chapter discusses Charles Babbage and the analytical engine, high-speed automatic digital machines and numerical analysis, and the first stage of development.

The Mind of Mechanical Man*

The dangers of the authors' being unintentionally misled by pure science are referred to, such as the planetary and chemical theories of disease that were the outcome of the Scientific Renaissance.

Translator's notes to an article on Babbage's Analytical Engine Scientific Memoir

  • Translator's notes to an article on Babbage's Analytical Engine Scientific Memoir
  • 1842