Computed tomography reveals hip dysplasia in the extinct Pleistocene saber-tooth cat Smilodon

  title={Computed tomography reveals hip dysplasia in the extinct Pleistocene saber-tooth cat Smilodon},
  author={Mairin A. Balisi and Abhinav K. Sharma and Carrie M. Howard and Christopher A. Shaw and Robert Klapper and Emily L Lindsey},
  journal={Scientific Reports},
Reconstructing the behavior of extinct species is challenging, particularly for those with no living analogues. However, damage preserved as paleopathologies on bone can record how an animal moved in life, potentially reflecting behavioral patterns. Here, we assess hypothesized etiologies of pathology in a pelvis and associated right femur of a Smilodon fatalis saber-toothed cat, one of the best-studied species from the Pleistocene-age Rancho La Brea asphalt seeps, California, USA, using… 



Radiographs Reveal Exceptional Forelimb Strength in the Sabertooth Cat, Smilodon fatalis

It is interpreted that Smilodon was a powerful predator that differed from extant felids in its greater ability to subdue prey using the forelimbs, and enhanced forelimb strength was part of an adaptive complex driven by the need to minimize the struggles of prey.

Evolution in the sabre‐tooth cat, Smilodon fatalis, in response to Pleistocene climate change

Mandibles of Smilodon fatalis from RLB are analysed using 2‐D geometric morphometrics to examine whether, and how, mandibular shape changes through time, and to have important implications for the timing or conditions during the extinction event.

Skeletal trauma reflects hunting behaviour in extinct sabre-tooth cats and dire wolves

Analysis of injury locations discriminated true hotspots from injury-dense areas and facilitated interpretation of predatory behaviour, demonstrating the use of spatial analyses in the study of vertebrate behaviour and evolution.

Hypercarnivorous teeth and healed injuries to Canis chihliensis from Early Pleistocene Nihewan beds, China, support social hunting for ancestral wolves

This work presents the first known record of dental infection in C. chihliensis, likely inflicted by processing hard food, such as bone, and suggests similarity in feeding behavior and sociality between Chinese and American Canis across space and time.

Assessing Behavior in Extinct Animals: Was Smilodon Social?

This paper will rebut assertions of sociality in Smilodon by noting that cats use metabolic reserves to heal quickly without feeding, and dehydration is a more profound limitation than starvation as prey carcasses only provide a quarter of necessary water.

Radiologic anatomy of the normal appendicular skeleton of the lion (Panthera leo). Part 1: thoracic limb.

Thoracic limb specimens from 12 euthanized free-ranging lions underwent radiographic evaluation and, on the basis of evaluation, the scapula has a prominent acromion, hamate, and suprahamate processes, as well as prominent nutrient foramina, and the humerus is similar to that of domestic cats.

Feline hip dysplasia

  • K. Perry
  • Medicine
    Journal of feline medicine and surgery
  • 2016
While there is a risk of complications with micro-THR, the positive outcomes that have been reported indicate that it should be considered in the treatment of coxofemoral pathology in cats in the same way that THR is considered for larger dogs, especially given the inconsistent results associated with FHNE.

Locomotor behaviour in Plio-Pleistocene sabre-tooth cats: a biomechanical analysis

The locomotor behaviour of some large extinct carnivores, including several species of Plio-Pleistocene sabre-tooth cats, is here reconstructed, based on a comparison of the cross-sectional geometric


Pelvic limb specimens from 14 euthanized free-ranging lions (Panthera leo), ranging in age from 16 to 170 mo, underwent radiographic evaluation in the manner described for thoracic limbs, and the femur of the lion is similar to that of domestic cats, but the cranial and caudal middiaphyseal cortices are markedly thickened.