Computational and Collective Creativity: Who's Being Creative?
Creativity research has traditionally focused on human creativity , and even more specifically, on the psychology of individual creative people. In contrast, computational creativity research involves the development and evaluation of creativity in a computational system. As we study the effect of scaling up from the creativity of a computational system and individual people to large numbers of diverse computational agents and people, we have a new perspective: creativity can ascribed to a computational agent, an individual person, collectives of people and agents and/or their interaction. By asking " Who is being creative? " this paper examines the source of creativity in computational and collective creativity. A framework based on ideation and interaction provides a way of characterizing existing research in computational and collective creativity and identifying directions for future research. Creativity is a topic of philosophical and scientific study considering the scenarios and human characteristics that facilitate creativity as well as the properties of computational systems that exhibit creative behavior. " The four Ps of creativity " , as introduced in Rhodes (1987) and more recently summarized by Runco (2011), decompose the complexity of creativity into separate but related influences: • Person: characteristics of the individual, • Product: an outcome focus on ideas, • Press: the environmental and contextual factors, • Process: cognitive process and thinking techniques. While the four Ps are presented in the context of the psychology of human creativity, they can be modified for computational creativity if process includes a computational process. The study of human creativity has a focus on the characteristics and cognitive behavior of creative people and the environments in which creativity is facilitated. The study of computational creativity, while inspired by concepts of human creativity, is often expressed in the formal language of search spaces and algorithms. Why do we ask who is being creative? Firstly, there is an increasing interest in understanding computational systems that can formalize or model creative processes and therefore exhibit creative behaviors or acts. Yet there are still skeptics that claim computers aren't creative, the computer is just following instructions. Second and in contrast, there is increasing interest in computational systems that encourage and enhance human creativity that make no claims about whether the computer is being or could be creative. Finally, as we develop more capable socially intelligent computational systems and systems that enable collective intelligence among humans and computers, the boundary between human creativity and …