Comprehensive wide-band magnitudes and albedos for the planets, with applications to exo-planets and Planet Nine

  title={Comprehensive wide-band magnitudes and albedos for the planets, with applications to exo-planets and Planet Nine},
  author={Anthony D. Mallama and Bruce A. Krobusek and Hristo Pavlov},
Computing apparent planetary magnitudes for The Astronomical Almanac
Terrestrial Planet Optical Phase Curves. I. Direct Measurements of the Earth
NASA’s EPOXI mission used the Deep Impact spacecraft to observe the disk-integrated Earth as an analog to terrestial exoplanets’ appearance. The mission took five 24 hr observations in 2008–2009 at
Characterization of Exoplanet Atmospheres with the Optical Coronagraph on WFIRST
WFIRST-CGI will obtain images and low-resolution spectra of a handful to a dozen extrasolar planets and protoplanetary disks. Its unprecedented contrast levels in the optical will provide
The Geometric Magnitude and Albedo for the Globe of Saturn
Saturn's geometric magnitude and albedo were determined by Mallama et al. (2017, Icarus 282, 19-33). That analysis depended largely on photometric data obtained when the ring system interfered with
Two Planets Straddling the Habitable Zone of the Nearby K Dwarf Gl 414A
We present the discovery of two planets orbiting the nearby (D = 11.9 pc) K7 dwarf Gl 414A. Gl 414A b is a sub-Neptune mass planet with M ⊕ and a semimajor axis of 0.23 ± 0.01 au. Gl 414A c is a
Temporal and spatial variations of the absolute reflectivity of Jupiter and Saturn from 0.38 to 1.7 $\mu$m with PlanetCam-UPV/EHU
We provide measurements of the absolute reflectivity of Jupiter and Saturn along their central meridians in filters covering a wide range of visible and near-infrared wavelengths (from 0.38 to 1.7
The Spherical Bolometric Albedo of Planet Mercury
Published reflectance data covering several different wavelength intervals has been combined and analyzed in order to determine the spherical bolometric albedo of Mercury. The resulting value of
Identifying Exo-Earth Candidates in Direct Imaging Data through Bayesian Classification
A Bayesian method is presented for estimating the likelihood that any directly imaged extrasolar planet is a true exo-Earth candidate by interpreting the planet's apparent magnitude and separation in light of existing exoplanet statistics.
The Mid-IR Albedo of Neptune Derived from Spitzer Observations
Mid-IR albedo values of Neptune are derived from Spitzer Space Telescope measurements reported by Stauffer et al. (2016). The method of this derivation is described and the results indicate that the
Method for deriving optical telescope performance specifications for Earth-detecting coronagraphs
A systems engineering process for deriving a wavefront stability error budget for any potential telescope/coronagraph combination is described and the utility of the method is demonstrated by intercomparing the ability of several monolithic and segmented telescope and coronagraph combinations to detect an exo-Earth at 10 pc.


The Secular and Rotational Brightness Variations of Neptune
Neptune has brightened by more than 10% during the past several decades. We report on the analysis of published Johnson-Cousins B and V magnitudes dating back to 1954 along with new U, B, V, R, Rc, I
Improving the Visual Magnitudes of the Planets in The Astronomical Almanac. I. Mercury and Venus
Estimates for the apparent V magnitudes of the planets currently published in The Astronomical Almanac are based on phase coefficients, Δm(i), presented by Harris along with values for V(1,0) from de
Phase Light Curves for Extrasolar Jupiters and Saturns
We predict how a remote observer would see the brightness variations of giant planets similar to those in our solar system as they orbit their central stars. Our models are the first to use measured
Large Brightness Variations of Uranus at Red and Near-IR Wavelengths
Uranus is fainter when the Sun and Earth are near its equatorial plane than when they are near the projection of its poles. The average of the absolute values of the sub-Earth and sub-Sun latitudes
Detectability of planetary characteristics in disk-averaged spectra II: synthetic spectra and light-curves of earth.
Modeling the disk-averaged sensitivity to the "red-edge," a distinctive spectral signature of vegetation, showed that Earth's land vegetation could be seen in disk-aversaged spectra, even with cloud cover, when the signal was averaged over the daily time scale.
Validation of ``Sloan Magnitudes for the Brightest Stars'' and Suggestions for Observing with Small Telescopes
Synthetic magnitudes derived from published spectral fluxes and photometric magnitudes from CCD observations are compared to those values listed in the catalogue “Sloan Magnitudes for the Brightest
Reflected Light Curves, Spherical and Bond Albedos of Jupiter- and Saturn-like Exoplanets
Reflected light curves observed for exoplanets indicate bright clouds at some of them. We estimate how the light curve and total stellar heating of a planet depend on forward and backward scattering
Constraints on the location of a possible 9th planet derived from the Cassini data
To explain the unusual distribution of Kuiper belt objects, several authors have advocated the existence of a super-Earth planet in the outer solar system. It has recently been proposed that a 10 M⊕