Compositional Categories of Ancient Glass

@article{Sayre1961CompositionalCO,
  title={Compositional Categories of Ancient Glass},
  author={Edward V. Sayre and R. W. Smith},
  journal={Science},
  year={1961},
  volume={133},
  pages={1824 - 1826}
}
From chemical analyses of ancient glasses found in Europe, Western Asia, and Africa from roughly the 15th century B.C. until the 12th century A.D., five main compositional categories have become apparent. With the possible exception of lead glasses which are only occasionally encountered in finds from this period, each of the main categories was prevalent over a wide geographic area for a period of at least several centuries. The categories are described in terms of the expected ranges of… 
The Provenance of Ancient Glass through Compositional Analysis
Recent developments in the understanding of the low-magnesia soda-lime-silica or “natron” glasses of the first millennium A.D. are reviewed. It appears that glass production was divided between a
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SEM-EDS analysis was used for the compositional characterization of two ancient glass beads collec tions, a late seventh-century BC Archaic collection from Rhodes Island and an Archaic to Hellenistic
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Sr-87\Sr-86 ratios have been determined for glasses from four production sites, dated to between the sixth and the 11th centuries, in the Eastern Mediterranean region. On the basis of elemental
DATA ON 61 CHEMICAL ELEMENTS FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF THREE MAJOR GLASS COMPOSITIONS IN LATE ANTIQUITY AND THE MIDDLE AGES
Sets of 20 soda ash, 16 soda lime and 23 wood ash glasses mainly from excavations in Europe were analysed by microprobe and LA–ICP-MS for 61 elements and are presented as average concentrations with
Late Byzantine Mineral Soda High Alumina Glasses from Asia Minor: A New Primary Glass Production Group
TLDR
While the chemical characteristics of the late antique and early medieval fragments confirm the current model of glass production and distribution at the time, the elemental make-up of the majority of the eighth- to fourteenth-century glasses from Pergamon indicate the existence of a late Byzantine glass type that is characterised by high alumina levels.
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