Gangliosides were extracted and purified from ovine testis and ejaculated spermatozoa which contained, respectively, 57 and 9 nmol lipid-bound sialic acid per gram wet weight. Fourteen gangliosides were resolved by thin-layer chromatography of testicular gangliosides, of which eleven were purified in sufficient quantity to enable a complete compositional analysis of the carbohydrate residues to be performed. None of the gangliosides contained fucose, but several contained N-glycolylneuraminic acid as a component of the sialic acid species. Relative migration on thin-layer chromatograms relative to known standards, compositional analysis, and selective degradation by specific enzymes were used as the basis for identification. Testis contained members of the ganglio series (GM1, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b, GQ1b), hematoside series (GM3, GD3), and sialosylparagloboside in the molar ratio of 54:40:6, respectively. Testicular GM3, GM1, GD3, GD1a, GD1b and GT1b ran as double bands on thin-layer chromatography which could be accounted for by observed differences in the fatty acid moiety. In addition, the slower migrating band of each pair contained some or all of its sialic acid residues as N-glycolylneuraminic acid, whereas the faster migrating band contained exclusively N-acetylneuraminic acid, except for GM3 where N-acetylneuraminic acid was the sole species in both bands. Thin-layer chromatography of sperm gangliosides revealed seven bands comigrating with equivalent testicular gangliosides. These coincided with the slower migrating bands of testicular GM3, GM1, GD3, GD1a, both bands of GD1b, and possibly both bands of GT1b. Sperm contained only trace amounts of sialosylparagloboside but, in addition, two unidentified bands which were absent from testis were also observed. The molar ratio of the ganglio series to the hematoside series in sperm was 42:58 with GM3 accounting for 42% of total gangliosides.