Composition and Physical Properties of Enceladus' Surface

@article{Brown2006CompositionAP,
  title={Composition and Physical Properties of Enceladus' Surface},
  author={Robert H. Brown and Roger N. Clark and Bonnie J. Buratti and Dale P. Cruikshank and Jason W. Barnes and Rachel Michelle Elizabeth Mastrapa and James M. Bauer and Sarah Newman and Thomas W. Momary and Kevin H. Baines and Giancarlo Bellucci and Fabrizio Capaccioni and Priscilla Cerroni and Michel Combes and Angioletta Coradini and Pierre Drossart and Vittorio Formisano and Ralf Jaumann and Y. Langevin and Dennis Matson and Thomas B. McCord and Robert M. Nelson and Philip D. Nicholson and Bruno Sicardy and Christophe Sotin},
  journal={Science},
  year={2006},
  volume={311},
  pages={1425 - 1428}
}
Observations of Saturn's satellite Enceladus using Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer instrument were obtained during three flybys of Enceladus in 2005. Enceladus' surface is composed mostly of nearly pure water ice except near its south pole, where there are light organics, CO2, and amorphous and crystalline water ice, particularly in the region dubbed the “tiger stripes.” An upper limit of 5 precipitable nanometers is derived for CO in the atmospheric column above Enceladus… 
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TLDR
The shape of Enceladus suggests a possible intense heating epoch in the past by capture into a 1:4 secondary spin/orbit resonance.
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TLDR
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Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) detected 3 to 7 gigawatts of thermal emission from the south polar troughs at temperatures up to 145 kelvin or higher, making Enceladus only the third known solid planetary body—after Earth and Io—that is sufficiently geologically active for its internal heat to be detected by remote sensing.
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TLDR
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