Composite massless vector boson

@article{Afferrante2020CompositeMV,
  title={Composite massless vector boson},
  author={Vincenzo Afferrante and Axel Maas and Pascal T{\"o}rek},
  journal={Physical Review D},
  year={2020},
  volume={101}
}
In a non-perturbative gauge-invariant formulation of grand-unified theories all low energy vector states need to be composite with respect to the high-scale gauge group, including the photon. We investigate this by using lattice methods to spectroscopically analyze the vector channel in a toy grand-unified theory, an SU(2) adjoint Higgs model. Our results support indeed the existence of a massless composite vector particle. 
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