Compliance of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol in the first commitment period

  title={Compliance of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol in the first commitment period},
  author={Igor Shishlov and Romain Morel and Valentin Bellassen},
  journal={Climate Policy},
  pages={768 - 782}
This article provides an ex post analysis of the compliance of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol during the first commitment period (2008–2012) based on the final data for national GHG emissions and exchanges in carbon units that became available at the end of 2015. On the domestic level, among the 36 countries that fully participated in the Kyoto Protocol, only nine countries emitted higher levels of GHGs than committed and therefore had to resort to flexibility mechanisms. On the… 
Evolution of international carbon markets: lessons for the Paris Agreement
The Paris Agreement will greatly benefit from the past experience with international market mechanisms for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions and related regulatory systems, which have gone
Reconciling the flexibility mechanisms of climate policies towards the inclusiveness of developing countries: commitments and prospects
  • Cemal Atici
  • Economics
    Environment, Development and Sustainability
  • 2021
The Kyoto Protocol, signed in 1997 and enforced in 2005, aimed to reduce global emissions and establish three mechanisms: an emission trading system, a clean development mechanism, and a joint
Evolution of the international regulatory regime and “ecosystem” of international carbon market mechanisms since the late 1990s
A structured review of the existing literature on changes in international market mechanisms for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions and related regulatory systems is undertaken, including over
Implementation of Nationally Determined Contributions under the Paris Agreement - Comparing the Approach of China and the EU
Climate change is a pressing global issue that is rapidly requiring a global response under international law. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change was created by the UN to unite states in
Potential carbon leakage under the Paris Agreement
Carbon leakage is the effect of emissions transferring to certain countries due to others having a stricter climate policy. This phenomenon is shown to have undercut the effectiveness of the Kyoto
The impact of the US retreat from the Paris Agreement: Kyoto revisited?
ABSTRACT The United States’ decision to withdraw from the Paris Agreement (pending possible re-engagement under different terms) may have significant ramifications for international climate policy,
Governing cooperative approaches under the Paris Agreement
Parties to the Paris Agreement can engage in voluntary cooperation and use internationally transferred mitigation outcomes towards their national climate pledges. Doing so promises to lower the cost
Carbon Finance and Emission Trading in Mexico: Building Lessons from the CDM Experience and FOMECAR (Mexican Carbon Fund)
A more general lesson from the past decade is that climate policy and carbon initiatives such as ETS and carbon pricing are not static concepts, but are instead constantly evolving and building upon
Catalysing private and public action for climate change mitigation: the World Bank’s role in international carbon markets
ABSTRACT This policy analysis examines the role of the World Bank in shaping and stimulating international carbon markets. Adopting a public choice perspective, we argue that its engagement can be
The Paris Agreement on Climate Change—Made in USA?
The 2015 Paris Agreement established a new logic for international climate governance: the pledge-and-review system. In 2009, the same idea had been proposed in the Copenhagen Accord, but was then


The costs of the Kyoto protocol in the European Union
Joint Implementation: a frontier mechanism within the borders of an emissions cap
Based on specific projects rather than economy-wide emissions reductions, and driven by the demand from the installations covered by the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), Joint
Requiem for Kyoto: An Economic Analysis of the Kyoto Protocol
This paper uses the newly developed RICE-98 model to analyze the economics of the Kyoto Protocol. It analyzes versions of the Kyoto Protocol that have different approaches to trading emissions rights
The Clean Development Mechanism: History, Status, and Prospects
The Clean Development Mechanism, or CDM, was a late invention in the negotiation of the Kyoto Protocol—so late, in fact, that it has been called the ‘‘Kyoto surprise’’ (Werksman 1998). In June 1997,
European industrial installations surrendered over 1 billion Kyoto credits (675 million CERs and 383 million ERUs) in Phase II (2008-2012) of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS).
Measuring Emissions Against an Alternative Future: Fundamental Flaws in the Structure of the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism
Proposals for reforming the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) range in scope, from making the CDM’s rules stricter and/or more objective, to a more fundamental shift away from project-based
Cooling Down Hot Air: A Global CGE Analysis of Post-Kyoto Carbon Abatement Strategies
The Kyoto Protocol marks a break-through in global warming mitigation policies as it sets legally binding emissions targets for major emitting regions. However, realisation of the Protocol depends on
Policy monitor. Edited by Maureen Cropper. The clean development mechanism: history, status, and prospects
Through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), governments or firms in developed countries can participate in the financing of projects that reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in developing
Carbon Leakage in the Primary Aluminium Sector
This paper provides an empirical analysis of the evidence of carbon leakage from the European primary aluminium industry during the first 6 ½ years of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU