Complexity of Coupled Human and Natural Systems

@article{Liu2007ComplexityOC,
  title={Complexity of Coupled Human and Natural Systems},
  author={Jianguo Liu and Thomas Dietz and Stephen R. Carpenter and Marina Alberti and Carl Folke and Emilio Moran and Alice N. Pell and Peter J. Deadman and Timothy K. Kratz and Jane Lubchenco and E. Ostrom and Zhiyun Ouyang and William Provencher and Charles L. Redman and Stephen Henry Schneider and William W. Taylor},
  journal={Science},
  year={2007},
  volume={317},
  pages={1513 - 1516}
}
Integrated studies of coupled human and natural systems reveal new and complex patterns and processes not evident when studied by social or natural scientists separately. Synthesis of six case studies from around the world shows that couplings between human and natural systems vary across space, time, and organizational units. They also exhibit nonlinear dynamics with thresholds, reciprocal feedback loops, time lags, resilience, heterogeneity, and surprises. Furthermore, past couplings have… 
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