Yessotoxins profile in strains of Protoceratium reticulatum from Spain and USA.
While the occurrence of yessotoxin (YTX) has been reported worldwide from Protoceratium reticulatum, the biogenetic origin of some YTX analogues is still unknown, thus raising an issue whether they are metabolites of YTX formed in mussels or true products of different dinoflagellate species. Findings reported herein suggest that P. reticulatum from the north-western Adriatic sea is responsible for production, together with YTX (1), of homoYTX (2), 45-OHYTX (3), carboxyYTX (5), and noroxoYTX (7). YTX and its analogues have been determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS and HPLC-MSn experiments). The result is the first to confirm production of these YTX analogues from this species and indicate it as a producing organism of homoYTX, 45-OHYTX, carboxyYTX, and noroxoYTX found in shellfish.