Complex vectorial optics through gradient index lens cascades

@article{He2019ComplexVO,
  title={Complex vectorial optics through gradient index lens cascades},
  author={Chao He and Jintao Chang and Qi Hu and Jingyu Wang and Jacopo Antonello and Honghui He and Shaoxiong Liu and Jianyu Lin and Ben Dai and Daniel S. Elson and Peng Xi and Hui Ma and Martin J. Booth},
  journal={Nature Communications},
  year={2019},
  volume={10}
}
Graded index (GRIN) lenses are commonly used for compact imaging systems. It is not widely appreciated that the ion-exchange process that creates the rotationally symmetric GRIN lens index profile also causes a symmetric birefringence variation. This property is usually considered a nuisance, such that manufacturing processes are optimized to keep it to a minimum. Here, rather than avoiding this birefringence, we understand and harness it by using GRIN lenses in cascade with other optical… 
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