• Corpus ID: 41962992

Complex trophic interactions in kelp forest ecosystems

  title={Complex trophic interactions in kelp forest ecosystems},
  author={James A. Estes and Eric M. Danner and Daniel F. Doak and Brenda H. Konar and Alan M. Springer and Peter D. Steinberg and Martin Tim Tinker and Terrie M. Williams},
  journal={Bulletin of Marine Science},
The distributions and abundances of species and populations change almost continuously. Understanding the processes responsible is perhaps ecologyʼs most fundamental challenge. Kelp-forest ecosystems in southwest Alaska have undergone several phase shifts between alga- and herbivore-dominated states in recent decades. Overhunting and recovery of sea otters caused the earlier shifts. Studies focusing on these changes demonstrate the importance of top-down forcing processes, a variety of indirect… 

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