Complex speciation of humans and chimpanzees

@article{Wakeley2008ComplexSO,
  title={Complex speciation of humans and chimpanzees},
  author={John Wakeley},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2008},
  volume={452},
  pages={E3-E4}
}
Arising from: N. Patterson, D. J. Richter, S. Gnerre, E. Lander & D. Reich 441, 1103–1108 (2006)10.1038/nature04789; Patterson et al. replyGenetic data from two or more species provide information about the process of speciation. In their analysis of DNA from humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans and macaques (HCGOM), Patterson et al. suggest that the apparently short divergence time between humans and chimpanzees on the X chromosome is explained by a massive interspecific hybridization… 

Complex speciation of humans and chimpanzees Arising from :

TLDR
The claim of hybridization is unwarranted because Patterson et al. do not statistically test their own null model of simple speciation before concluding that speciation was complex, and—even if the null model could be rejected—they do not consider other explanations of a short divergence time on the X chromosome.

An autosomal analysis gives no genetic evidence for complex speciation of humans and chimpanzees.

TLDR
The simplest speciation model with instantaneous split adequately describes the human-chimpanzee speciation event, and there is no strong reason to involve complicated factors in explaining the autosomal data.

Strong selection in the human-chimpanzee ancestor links the X chromosome to speciation

TLDR
Complete lineage sorting patterns between humans, chimpanzees and gorillas are studied to show that this low divergence is entirely due to megabase-sized regions comprising one-third of the X chromosome, where polymorphism in the human-chimpanzee ancestral species was severely reduced.

Genetic evidence for complex speciation of humans and chimpanzees

TLDR
This analysis shows that human–chimpanzee speciation occurred less than 6.3 million years ago and probably more recently, conflicting with some interpretations of ancient fossils and most strikingly, chromosome X shows an extremely young genetic divergence time, close to the genome minimum along nearly its entire length.

Inferring the Process of Human–Chimpanzee Speciation

Although the fossil record around the times of the key speciation events that splits humans from orangutans, gorillas and chimpanzees is sparse, genetic comparisons of the extant apes enable us to

Mitochondrial Pseudogenes Suggest Repeated Inter-Species Hybridization among Direct Human Ancestors

TLDR
Comparison of a NUMT sequence shared by humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas with their mtDNAs implies that, around the time of divergence between humans and chimpanzees, the authors' evolutionary history involved the interbreeding of individuals whose mtDNA had diverged as much as ~4.5 Myr prior.

Divergence-with-Gene-Flow—What Humans and Other Mammals Got up to

TLDR
It is argued that in general, the assumptions that resulted in the definitions and concepts surrounding speciation were made much stronger by a dearth, rather than a wealth, of the data needed to test hypotheses, which limited greatly how evolutionary diversification was perceived to occur.

Divergence population genetic analysis of hybridization between rhesus and cynomolgus macaques

The geographic ranges of rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus (M. fascicularis) macaques adjoin in Indochina where they appear to hybridize. We used published and newly generated DNA sequences from
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References

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Complex speciation of humans and chimpanzees Arising from :

TLDR
The claim of hybridization is unwarranted because Patterson et al. do not statistically test their own null model of simple speciation before concluding that speciation was complex, and—even if the null model could be rejected—they do not consider other explanations of a short divergence time on the X chromosome.

Genetic evidence for complex speciation of humans and chimpanzees

TLDR
This analysis shows that human–chimpanzee speciation occurred less than 6.3 million years ago and probably more recently, conflicting with some interpretations of ancient fossils and most strikingly, chromosome X shows an extremely young genetic divergence time, close to the genome minimum along nearly its entire length.

The effect of gene flow on the coalescent time in the human-chimpanzee ancestral population.

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