Complex regional pain syndrome: are there distinct subtypes and sequential stages of the syndrome?

  title={Complex regional pain syndrome: are there distinct subtypes and sequential stages of the syndrome?},
  author={Stephen Bruehl and Robert Norman Harden and Bradley S Galer and Samuel Saltz and Miroslav Backonja and Michael Stanton‐Hicks},

Tables from this paper

The outcome of complex regional pain syndrome type 1: a systematic review.
Clinical expression profiles of complex regional pain syndrome, fibromyalgia and a-specific repetitive strain injury: More common denominators than pain?
A systematic evaluation of patients with a suspected diagnosis of CRPS, FM or RSI may lead to a better appreciation of the differences and similarities in these diseases and help to unravel the underlying mechanisms.
Management of patients with complex regional pain syndrome type I
Since the only accredited mechanism of action of bisphosphonates is the suppression of osteoclastic bone resorption, it is likely the initial dramatic bone loss plays a role in the maintenance and evolution of CRPS-I.
Complex regional pain syndrome—1: history, diagnostic criteria and etiology
Outcome of the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
Severe CRPS outcome is rare, but a majority of patients has persistent impairments at 2 or more years since onset, and a number of patients in the poorest outcome cluster more often had their upper extremity affected, event other than a fracture, and cold CRPS.
Complex regional pain syndrome: evidence for warm and cold subtypes in a large prospective clinical sample
The pattern of clinical features suggests that inflammatory mechanisms contribute most prominently to the Warm CRPS subtype but that these mechanisms diminish substantially during the first year postinjury.
Complex regional pain syndrome: a review.
The Budapest criteria for complex regional pain syndrome: The diagnostic challenge
There is an urgent need to better define and describe CRPS so that it can be appropriately diagnosed and its mechanisms elucidated and that step will lead to better treatment.


Complex regional pain syndrome: are the IASP diagnostic criteria valid and sufficiently comprehensive?
Course of symptoms and quality of life measurement in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: a pilot survey.
Vascular abnormalities in reflex sympathetic dystrophy (CRPS I): mechanisms and diagnostic value.
It is suggested that, in CRPS I, unilateral inhibition of sympathetic vasoconstrictor neurones leads to a warmer affected limb in the acute stage, whereas sympathetic activity is still depressed.
Complex regional pain syndrome.
  • R. Harden
  • Medicine
    British journal of anaesthesia
  • 2001
Since the early musings in the mid-1800s of Claude Bernard and his French neurological colleagues on the association of pain with the sympathetic nervous system, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)
The Natural History of Post-Traumatic Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy
  • A. Żyluk
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of hand surgery
  • 1998
Algodystrophy: an under-recognized complication of minor trauma.
It is believed that algodystrophy is a neglected disorder and is far more common than formerly appreciated and associated with a significant increase in short-term morbidity in the majority of patients and persistent dysfunction in a minority.
Methods, procedures, and techniques for the symptomatic control of pain - introduction: pharmacologic therapy psychologic and psychosocial techniques physical therapeutic modalities electric stimulation (neuroaugmentative techniques) regional analgesia ablative neurosurgical operations interdisciplinary, multimodal pain management programmes.