Complex cooperative strategies in group-territorial African lions

@article{Heinsohn1995ComplexCS,
  title={Complex cooperative strategies in group-territorial African lions},
  author={Robert Heinsohn and Craig Packer},
  journal={Science},
  year={1995},
  volume={269},
  pages={1260 - 1262}
}
Female lions (Panthera leo) showed persistent individual differences in the extent to which they participated in group-territorial conflict. When intergroup encounters were simulated by playback of aggressive vocalizations, some individuals consistently led the approach to the recorded intruder, whereas others lagged behind and avoided the risks of fighting. The lead females recognized that certain companions were laggards but failed to punish them, which suggests that cooperation is not… 

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