Complex Modulation of Rapidly Rotating Young M Dwarfs: Adding Pieces to the Puzzle

  title={Complex Modulation of Rapidly Rotating Young M Dwarfs: Adding Pieces to the Puzzle},
  author={Maximilian N. Gunther and David A. Berardo and Elsa Ducrot and C. A. Murray and Keivan G. Stassun and Katalin Ol{\'a}h and Luke G. Bouma and Saul A. Rappaport and Joshua N. Winn and Adina D. Feinstein and Elisabeth C. Matthews and Daniel Sebastian and Benjamin V. Rackham and B{\'a}lint Seli and Amaury H. M. J. Triaud and Edward Gillen and Alan M. Levine and B-O. Demory and Micha{\"e}l Gillon and Didier Queloz and George R. Ricker and Roland K. Vanderspek and Sara Seager and David W. Latham and Jon M. Jenkins and Clara E. Brasseur and Knicole d. Col'on and T. Daylan and Laetitia Delrez and L. J. Garcia and Rahul Jayaraman and Emmanuel Jehin and Martti H. K. Kristiansen and J. M. Diederik Kruijssen and Peter P. Pedersen and Francisco J. Pozuelos and Joseph E. Rodriguez and Bill Wohler and Zhuchang Zhan},
  journal={The Astronomical Journal},
New sets of young M dwarfs with complex, sharp-peaked, and strictly periodic photometric modulations have recently been discovered with Kepler/K2 (scallop shells) and TESS (complex rotators). All are part of star-forming associations, are distinct from other variable stars, and likely belong to a unified class. Suggested hypotheses include starspots, accreting dust disks, corotating clouds of material, magnetically constrained material, spots and misaligned disks, and pulsations. Here, we… 
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