Complex Iron Smelting and Prehistoric Culture in Tanzania

@article{Schmidt1978ComplexIS,
  title={Complex Iron Smelting and Prehistoric Culture in Tanzania},
  author={Peter R. Schmidt and Donald Howard Avery},
  journal={Science},
  year={1978},
  volume={201},
  pages={1085 - 1089}
}
Western scientists and students of history have long explaind th iron bloomery process by evidence available from European archeology. Ethnographic, technological, and archeological research into the technological life of the Haya of northwestern Tanzania show that these people and their forebears 1500 to 2000 years ago practiced a highly advanced iron smelting technology based on preheating principles and, as a result, produced carbon steel. This sophisticated technology may have evolved as an… 
The origins of iron metallurgy in Africa : new light on its antiquity, West and Central Africa
● The work of the specialists – archaeologists, historians, ethnologists, sociologists and metallographical engineers – presented in this book bears witness to the energy of the research now being
Iron production in second millennium AD pastoralist contexts on the Laikipia Plateau, Kenya
Iron has played an important role within East African pastoralist societies for many hundreds of years, yet the means by which iron was produced or obtained by these communities has not been
Refractory ceramics and iron smelting in East Africa
Over the last twenty years, there has been a discernible increase in the number of scholars who have focused their research on metal production, working and use in antiquity, a field of study which
Limbo: Early Iron-working in south-eastern Tanzania
This report on fieldwork and excavations undertaken in 1987 establishes the Limbo site in the Early Iron Age tradition of East Africa on account of pottery with Kwale affinities, and reveals
The last 200,000 years (or thereabouts) in Eastern Africa: Recent archaeological research
Research in Eastern Africa is hampered by a variety of logistical constraints common in underdeveloped and politically fragmented regions. The later Middle and early Upper Pleistocene are attracting
Iron production in Iron Age Zimbabwe : stagnation or innovation?
In conventional reconstructions of southern African archaeology, it has been assumed implicitly or explicitly that the production of iron was unchanging for close to 1500 years. This view was
Iron is iron 'til it is rust: Trade and Ecology in the Decline of West African Iron-Smelting
  • C. Goucher
  • History, Environmental Science
    The Journal of African History
  • 1981
Archaeological evidence and historical accounts have been used to examine the impact of trade and ecology on the decline of West African iron industries. Environmental changes including an
Excavations at Jenné-Jeno, Hambarketolo, and Kaniana (Inland Niger Delta, Mali), the 1981 season
Since the first scientific excavations were conducted at Jenne-jeno in 1977, this huge Iron Age occupation mound located in the floodplain of the Inland Niger Delta has produced a classic
Innovation, diffusion, and culture contact: The holocene archaeology of Ghana
Stressing recent research, this review of Ghana archaeology highlights what we know of the advent of sedentism, agriculture, iron technology, and urbanism in Ghana and examines how certain patterns
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-2 OF 2 REFERENCES
A New Look at Interpretations of the Early Iron Age in East Africa
Since the publication in English in 1965 of Jan Vansina's Oral Tradition, historians of Africa have been increasingly concerned with developing methods which confirm the historical value of oral