Production of plasmid-encoding NDM-1 in clinical Raoultella ornithinolytica and Leclercia adecarboxylata from China
OBJECTIVES Emergence of plasmids harbouring bla(NDM-1) is a major public health concern due to their association with multidrug resistance and their potential mobility. METHODS PCR was used to detect bla(NDM-1) from clinical isolates of Providencia rettgeri (PR) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP). Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined using Vitek 2. The complete DNA sequence of two bla(NDM-1) plasmids (pPrY2001 and pKp11-42) was obtained using a 454-Genome Sequencer FLX. Contig assembly and gap closures were confirmed by PCR-based sequencing. Comparative analysis was done using BLASTn and BLASTp algorithms. RESULTS Both clinical isolates were resistant to all β-lactams, carbapenems, aminoglycosides, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and susceptible to tigecycline. Plasmid pPrY2001 (113 295 bp) was isolated from PR. It did not show significant homology to any known plasmid backbone and contained a truncated repA and novel repB. Two bla(NDM-1)-harbouring plasmids from Acinetobacter lwoffii (JQ001791 and JQ060896) shared 100% similarity to a 15 kb region that contained bla(NDM-1). pPrY2001 also contained a type II toxin/antitoxin system. pKp11-42 (146 695 bp) was isolated from KP. It contained multiple repA genes. The plasmid backbone had the highest homology to the IncFIIk plasmid type (51% coverage, 100% nucleotide identity). The bla(NDM-1) region was unique in that it was flanked upstream by IS3000 and downstream by a novel transposon designated Tn6229. pKp11-42 also contained a number of mutagenesis and plasmid stability proteins. CONCLUSIONS pPrY2001 differed from all known plasmids due to its novel backbone and repB. pKp11-42 was similar to IncFIIk plasmids and contained a number of genes that aid in plasmid persistence.