Complete randomized benchmarking protocol accounting for leakage errors

@article{Chasseur2015CompleteRB,
  title={Complete randomized benchmarking protocol accounting for leakage errors},
  author={Tobias Chasseur and Frank K. Wilhelm},
  journal={Physical Review A},
  year={2015},
  volume={92},
  pages={042333}
}
Randomized Benchmarking allows to efficiently and scalably characterize the average error of an unitary 2-design such as the Clifford group $\mathcal{C}$ on a physical candidate for quantum computation, as long as there are no non-computational leakage levels in the system. We investigate the effect of leakage errors on Randomized Benchmarking induced from an additional level per physical qubit and provide a modified protocol that allows to derive reliable estimates for the error per gate in… 

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