Complete nucleotide sequence of the prophage VT2-Sakai carrying the verotoxin 2 genes of the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 derived from the Sakai outbreak.

@article{Makino1999CompleteNS,
  title={Complete nucleotide sequence of the prophage VT2-Sakai carrying the verotoxin 2 genes of the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 derived from the Sakai outbreak.},
  author={Kozo Makino and Katsushi Yokoyama and Yuka Kubota and C H Yutsudo and Sigenobu Kimura and Ken Kurokawa and K. Ishii and Masahiro Hattori and Ichiro Tatsuno and Hiroyuki Abe and Tetsuya Iida and K. Yamamoto and M Onishi and T. Hayashi and Teruo Yasunaga and T. Honda and Chihiro Sasakawa and Hideo Shinagawa},
  journal={Genes \& genetic systems},
  year={1999},
  volume={74 5},
  pages={
          227-39
        }
}
The enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 strain RIMD 0509952, derived from an outbreak in Sakai city, Japan, in 1996, produces two kinds of verotoxins, VT1 and VT2, encoded by the stx1 and stx2 genes. In the EHEC strains, as well as in other VT-producing E. coli strains, the toxins are encoded by lysogenic bacteriophages. The EHEC O157:H7 strain RIMD 0509952 did not produce plaque-forming phage particles upon inducing treatments. We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence… Expand
Complete nucleotide sequence of the prophage VT1-Sakai carrying the Shiga toxin 1 genes of the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain derived from the Sakai outbreak.
TLDR
Data suggest that multiple genetic recombination among bacteriophages with different immunities took place to generate the prophage VT1-Sakai, which was produced by illegitimate excision like lambda gal and bio phages. Expand
A novel transducible chimeric phage from Escherichia coli O157:H7 Sakai strain encoding Stx1 production.
TLDR
A new type of inducible Stx phage carrying the stx1 gene cluster from the prototypic EHEC O157:H7 Sakai strain shows Podoviridae morphology, and was capable of converting the E. coli K-12 MG1655 strain to Shiga toxin-producing phenotype. Expand
The Shiga-toxin VT2-encoding bacteriophage varphi297 integrates at a distinct position in the Escherichia coli genome.
TLDR
PCR walking, starting from the int gene of phage varphi297, demonstrated that the varphi 297 prophage integrated in the yecE gene of a lysogenic E. coli K12 strain, confirmed by PCR using primers flanking this site. Expand
Escherichia coli O157:H7 Shiga Toxin-Encoding Bacteriophages: Integrations, Excisions, Truncations, and Evolutionary Implications
TLDR
The unexpected diversity of the chromosomal architecture of E. coli O157:H7 is demonstrated, suggesting that stx(1) acquisition might be a multistep process, and the consideration of multiple exogenous factors, including antibiotics and bile, when chromosome stability is examined. Expand
The Shiga toxin 2 production level in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 is correlated with the subtypes of toxin-encoding phage
TLDR
It is shown that one of the two subclades in the clade 8, a proposed hyper-virulent lineage of O157, carries the Stx2 phage subtype that confers the highest Stx1 production to the host strain, which may explain the proposed high virulence potential ofClade 8. Expand
Replication Region Analysis Reveals Non-lambdoid Shiga Toxin Converting Bacteriophages
TLDR
It is shown that Eru1-phages exhibit a less stable lysogenic state than the classical lambdoid Stx phages, which could be used to develop a novel strategy to identify highly virulent EHEC strains for improved risk assessment and management. Expand
Whole genome sequence comparison of vtx2-converting phages from Enteroaggregative Haemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains
TLDR
At least two different vtx2-phages, both characterized by the presence of a peculiar tail fiber-coding gene, intervened in the emergence of Enteroaggregative Haemorrhagic E. coli (EAHEC). Expand
Characterization of a Shiga Toxin-Encoding Temperate Bacteriophage of Shigella sonnei
TLDR
It is demonstrated that stx genes are naturally transferable and are expressed in strains of S. sonnei and laboratory E. coli, which points to the continuous evolution of human-pathogenic Shigella by horizontal gene transfer. Expand
Genes essential for the morphogenesis of the Shiga toxin 2-transducing phage from Escherichia coli O157:H7
TLDR
Nine essential genes, which, together with the terminase genes, determine Sp5 morphogenesis, are identified and provide an important basis for better understanding the biology of this unique and medically important group of bacteriophages. Expand
Shiga Toxin Gene Loss and Transfer In Vitro and In Vivo during Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O26 Infection in Humans
TLDR
EH EC O26 and aEPEC O26 exist as a dynamic system whose members undergo ephemeral interconversions via loss and gain of Stx-encoding phages to yield different pathotypes during infection, and the suggested occurrence of this process in the human intestine has diagnostic, clinical, epidemiological, and evolutionary implications. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 54 REFERENCES
Complete nucleotide sequences of 93-kb and 3.3-kb plasmids of an enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 derived from Sakai outbreak.
  • K. Makino, K. Ishii, +14 authors H. Shinagawa
  • Medicine, Biology
  • DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes
  • 1998
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7, derived from an outbreak in Sakai city, Japan in 1996, possesses two kinds of plasmids: a 93-kb plasmid termed pO157, found in clinical EHECExpand
Sequence analysis of Stx2-converting phage VT2-Sa shows a great divergence in early regulation and replication regions.
  • H. Miyamoto, W. Nakai, +4 authors A. Matsushiro
  • Biology, Medicine
  • DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes
  • 1999
TLDR
Observations suggest that the various degrees of homology observed in the immunity and replication regions of VT2-Sa could have resulted from frequent recombination events among the lambdoid phages, and that these regions play a key role as a functional unit for phage propagation in competition with other lambdoids phages. Expand
Sequence of Shiga Toxin 2 Phage 933W fromEscherichia coli O157:H7: Shiga Toxin as a Phage Late-Gene Product
TLDR
Evidence is found that the toxin genes are part of a late-phage transcript, suggesting that toxin production may be coupled with, if not dependent upon, phage release during lytic growth, and three novel tRNA genes present in the phage genome may serve to increase the availability of rare tRNA species associated with efficient expression of pathogenicity determinants. Expand
An ileX tRNA gene is located close to the Shiga toxin II operon in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 and non-O157 strains.
TLDR
Although the role of ileX in Stx2-producing EHEC strains is not clear, its function in regard to the use of rare codons and as an integration site is discussed. Expand
Arrangement and functional identification of genes in the regulatory region of lambdoid phage H-19B, a carrier of a Shiga-like toxin.
TLDR
Functional studies show that functional studies identify ORFs and sequences involved in transcriptional regulation encoding N-like antitermination systems like those found in other lambdoid phages and nearly identical to sequences found in phage HK97. Expand
Sequence of a variant Shiga-like toxin type-I operon of Escherichia coli O111:H-.
TLDR
PCR amplification was used to screen faecal isolates of Escherichia coli from a 12-month-old boy with haemolytic uraemic syndrome for the presence of Shiga-like toxin (SLT)-encoding genes, and revealed that the SLT-I gene was located on an 8.5-kb EcoRI fragment. Expand
The primary structure of the operons coding for Shigella dysenteriae toxin and temperature phage H30 shiga-like toxin.
Nucleotide(nt) sequences were determined for the toxin (SHT) operon present in the chromosome of Shigella dysenteriae 1 and for the shiga-like toxin (SLT) operon found in the lambdoid phage H30Expand
The so-called chromosomal verotoxin genes are actually carried by defective prophages.
TLDR
An exhaustive search of the literature and databases on DNA sequences of verotoxin genes found only two described as chromosomal: one is from Shigella dysenteriae, and the other from Escherichia coli, and it is proposed that the IS's were responsible for the defectiveness of the prophage. Expand
Site of action of a Vero toxin (VT2) from Escherichia coli O157:H7 and of Shiga toxin on eukaryotic ribosomes. RNA N-glycosidase activity of the toxins.
TLDR
Results indicate that both VT2 and Shiga toxin inactivate 60S ribosomal subunits by cleaving the N-glycosidic bond at A-4324 in 28S ribOSomal RNA. Expand
Functional and genetic analysis of regulatory regions of coliphage H‐19B: location of shiga‐like toxin and lysis genes suggest a role for phage functions in toxin release
TLDR
Observations suggest that stx‐I expression can be enhanced by transcription from pR′ as a model for toxin release through cell lysis mediated by action of phage‐encoded lysis functions. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...