Integrin-regulated Secretion of Interleukin 4: A Novel Pathway of Mechanotransduction in Human Articular Chondrocytes
We have isolated a chromosomal DNA segment of the human IL-4 gene based on homology with a human IL-4 cDNA sequence and determined its complete nucleotide sequence. The human IL-4 gene, which occurs as a single copy in the haploid genome, is mapped on chromosome 5. It is composed of four exons and three introns and is approximately 10 kilobase pairs in size. 5'-Flanking regions of human and mouse IL-4 genes share about 85% homology extending more than 500 base pairs upstream of a "TATA" like sequence. Several patches of sequences are found in the 5'-flanking region of the human IL-4 gene which are homologous to sequence in the 5'-flanking regions of the IL-2, IL-3, IL-5, and granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-CSF genes. The IL-4 gene is inducible after treatment of human T cell clone by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (TPA) and calcium ionophore A23187. The 2.3-kb 5'-flanking region of the human IL-4 gene transiently transfected into Jurkat human T cell leukemia cells is activated efficiently in response to TPA and A23187 stimulation and, although less efficiently, by human T cell leukemia virus type I-encoded p40x or BPV-encoded E2 protein. Combination of TPA/A23187 and p40x or E2 protein further augmented the level of expression.