The monophyly and phylogenetic relationships of Pseudosciaeniae have long been controversial. Here we describe the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Collichthys niveatus. It is a circular double-stranded DNA molecule of 16,450 base pairs (bp) in length with a standard set of 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs), 13 protein-coding genes as well as a non-coding control region. The mitogenome of C. niveatus shared common features with those of other bony fishes in terms of gene arrangement, base composition, and tRNA structures. The C. niveatus mitogenome exhibited pronounced strand-specific asymmetry in nucleotide composition, which was also reflected in the codon usage of genes oriented in opposite directions. Contrary to the typical structure of the control region, the central conserved blocks (CSB-D, -E, and -F) could not be detected in C. niveatus mitogenome. Phylogenetic analysis based on whole mitogenome sequences provided strong support for the monophyly of Pseudosciaeniae, and sister-group relationships of C. niveatus+Collichthys lucidus and Larimichthys crocea+Larimichthys polyactis, which was consistent with the traditional taxonomy. Unexpected divergence was found in two C. niveatus mitogenomes and several hypotheses were proposed to explain this observation including misidentification and introgressive hybridization between C. niveatus and L. polyactis, and polyphyletic origin of C. niveatus. We considered species misidentification to be the main hypothesis. However, additional data is essential to test these proposed hypotheses.