Complete fourth metatarsal and arches in the foot of Australopithecus afarensis.

@article{Ward2011CompleteFM,
  title={Complete fourth metatarsal and arches in the foot of Australopithecus afarensis.},
  author={Carol V Ward and William H. Kimbel and D. Johanson},
  journal={Science},
  year={2011},
  volume={331 6018},
  pages={750-3}
}
The transition to full-time terrestrial bipedality is a hallmark of human evolution. A key correlate of human bipedalism is the development of longitudinal and transverse arches of the foot that provide a rigid propulsive lever and critical shock absorption during striding bipedal gait. Evidence for arches in the earliest well-known Australopithecus species, A. afarensis, has long been debated. A complete fourth metatarsal of A. afarensis was recently discovered at Hadar, Ethiopia. It exhibits… CONTINUE READING
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