Complete Nucleotide Sequence of Human Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide/PHM‐27 Gene and Its Inducible Promoter a

  title={Complete Nucleotide Sequence of Human Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide/PHM‐27 Gene and Its Inducible Promoter a},
  author={Takashi Yamagami and Kenzo Ohsawa and Mikio Nishizawa and C Inoue and E. Gotoh and Noboru Yanaihara and Hiroshi Yamamoto and Hiroshi Okamoto},
  journal={Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences},
We have previously shown that the VIP precursor contains a novel PHI-27-like peptide, PHM-27, and that the synthesis of the prepro-VIP/PHM-27 mRNA is induced with cAMP and TPA in human neuroblastoma cells. In this study, we have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the human VIP/PHM-27 gene. The gene spans 8,837 bp and consists of seven exons and six introns. Exon I of 165 bp consists of the 5' untranslated region of the gene, exon II of 117 bp encodes the signal peptide of prepro-VIP… 

High conservation of upstream regulatory sequences on the human and mouse vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) genes.

Because tissue-specific patterns of VIP expression are remarkably well conserved between rodents and humans, the mouse VIP gene was isolated and 5' flanking sequences with that of the human gene were compared to identify homologous regions which might be involved in regulation common to both species.

Location of PHM/VIP mRNA in human gastrointestinal tract detected by in situ hybridization

The expression of the gene for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and peptide histidine methionine (PHM) in the human gastrointestinal tract was studied by in situ hybridization and Northern


  • J. Fahrenkrug
  • Biology
    Results and problems in cell differentiation
  • 2010
All peptides are present in tissue, the dominating form being PACAP 38, PACAP 27 and PACAP related peptide (PRP), and carboxyamidation of VIP and PHI is not critical and glycine-extended forms of both peptides have been demonstrated.

Tissue-specific regulation of vasoactive intestinal peptide messenger ribonucleic acid levels by estrogen in the rat.

The early and chronic effects of 17 beta-estradiol on vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) gene expression in rats were examined to suggest that the regulation of VIP gene expression by transient increases in estrogen levels is rapid and that the pattern of induction is tissue specific.

Isolation, characterisation, and chromosomal localisation of the mouse and human vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor type 2 genes

The work presented in this thesis has focused on the isolation and characterisation of mouse and human genomic clones encoding the VIP2 receptor, which should allow molecular genetic approaches to be used in future studies of the functions of this receptor.

STAT proteins participate in the regulation of the vasoactive intestinal peptide gene by the ciliary neurotrophic factor family of cytokines.

Activation of STAT transcription factors contributes to the induction of the VIp gene by the CNTF family of cytokines and may be involved in cytokine-mediated differentiation of sympathetic neurons.

VIP: Molecular biology and neurobiological function

VIP is a major factor in brain activity, neuroendocrine functions, cardiac activity, respiration, digestion, and sexual potency, and exerts its function via receptor-mediated systems, activating signal transduction pathways, including cAMP.



Structure and expression of the gene encoding the vasoactive intestinal peptide precursor.

The gene encoding the human vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and the histidine-methionine amide (PHM-27) peptide hormone was isolated from lambda phage libraries and southern blot analysis with genomic DNA suggested that a single copy of the VIP/PHm-27 gene is present in the human haploid genome.

Coding sequences for vasoactive intestinal peptide and PHM-27 peptide are located on two adjacent exons in the human genome.

The occurrence of VIP and PHM-27 coding sequences on two separate exons of the human genome and the homology of their 3' splice site may allow alternative RNA processing as discussed below.

Structure of the human vasoactive intestinal polypeptide gene.

The pre-proVIP gene is isolated and the structure is determined, which appears to divide the gene into functional domains and one of the introns occurs within the 3'-untranslated region of the gene.

Exon duplication and divergence in the human preproglucagon gene

The data suggest that triplication and subsequent sequence divergence of an exon encoding glucagon or a glucagon-like peptide produced this polyprotein precursor.

Human preprovasoactive intestinal polypeptide contains a novel PHI-27-like peptide, PHM-27

The entire amino acid sequence of the precursor, deduced from the nucleotide sequence, indicates that the precursor protein contains not only VIP but also a novel peptide of 27 amino acids.

Identification of a cyclic-AMP-responsive element within the rat somatostatin gene.

The studies indicate that transcriptional regulation of the somatostatin gene by cAMP requires protein kinase 2 activity and may depend upon a highly conserved promoter element.