Complement systems in invertebrates. The ancient alternative and lectin pathways.

  title={Complement systems in invertebrates. The ancient alternative and lectin pathways.},
  author={L Courtney Smith and Kaoru Azumi and Masaru Nonaka},
  volume={42 1-3},
The complement system in higher vertebrates is composed of about thirty proteins that function in three activation cascades and converge in a single terminal pathway. It is believed that these cascades, as they function in the higher vertebrates, evolved from a few ancestral genes through a combination of gene duplications and divergences plus pathway duplication (perhaps as a result of genome duplication). Evidence of this evolutionary history is based on sequence analysis of complement… CONTINUE READING


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