Cardiopulmonary Bypass, Inflammation and How to Defy it: Focus on Pharmacological Interventions
- Ali Dabbagha, Samira Rajaeib, Ayad Bahadori Monfaredc, Ali Asghar Keramatiniad, Korosh Omidid
BACKGROUND By comparing the results of cardiac operations with or without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in infants in a prospective study, we sought to determine which part of the postoperative systemic inflammatory response was caused by CPB. METHODS Thirty-five patients were divided into two groups: 11 infants operated on without CPB and 24 infants operated on with CPB. Blood samples were drawn before, during, and after the operation. We assessed complement function and the concentrations or activities of C1q, C3, C4, C1 inhibitor, factor B, the activated split product C3a, and prekallikrein and factor XIIa of the contact system. RESULTS All of the patients exhibited a decrease of complement proteins. This was greater in infants who underwent CPB. A increase in C3a and factor XIIa and changes in prekallikrein activity occurred only in infants during CPB. CONCLUSIONS Complement activation occurs in all infants, but is significantly higher in the group with CPB. Contact activation only occurs in patients who undergo CPB. Thus, the inflammatory response is caused by the use of a CPB circuit and to a lesser degree by surgical procedures and anesthesia.